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Table 2 Description of measurements

From: Chest wall thickness and depth to vital structures in paediatric patients – implications for prehospital needle decompression of tension pneumothorax

Measurement Description
Width of the intercostal space From the inferior border of the superior rib to the superior edge of the inferior rib
Chest Wall Thickness (CWT) Skin to pleural space
Depth to vital structure (DVS) Skin to the intersection of the insertion line (see “directions of insertion”) with an intrathoracic vital structure (see Table 3)
Intrapleural Safety Zone (ISZ) Pleural space to the intersection with an intrathoracic vital structure (DVS – CWT), representing the intrathoracic distance to a vital structure
Directions of insertion
 Sagittal Insertion in the sagittal plane
 Perpendicular Insertion perpendicular to the chest wall
 Close The closest vital structure to the point of insertion was identified visually. DVS was then measured from this point of reference to skin surface.