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Table 6 Medical interventions before and after human external cargo (HEC) extrication

From: Challenges of helicopter mountain rescue missions by human external cargo: need for physicians onsite and comprehensive training

Medical intervention before HEC, n (%) after HEC, n (%)
i.v. line 573 (68) 4 (1)
Analgesia (low dose)a 430 (51) 47 (6)
Analgesia (high dose) 142 (17) 20 (2)
Drugs (except analgesia and vasoactive drugs) 101 (12) 27 (1)
Volume resuscitation ≥1000 ml 39 (5) 3 (0.4)
Endotracheal intubation/RSI (excluding CPR patients) 29 (3) 14 (2)
CPR 14 (2) 2 (0.2)
Vasoactive drugsb (excluding CPR patients) 19 (2) 6 (1)
Ventilation (bag-mask ventilation) (excluding CPR patients and patients requiring RSI) 20 (2) 5 (1)
Joint reduction (with signs of neurological/vascular impairment) 12 (1) 0
Chest tube 3 (0.4) 0
  1. aLow-dose analgesia is defined as fentanyl < 0.2 mg or ketamine < 50 mg
  2. bAdrenaline, noradrenaline, ephedrine, phenylephrine
  3. CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, HEC human external cargo extraction, RSI rapid sequence induction