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Table 4 Distance, transport time and estimated flight procedure. Those missions in which the patient was transported partly by helicopter (n = 7) were excluded from the table

From: Impact of icing weather conditions on the patients in helicopter emergency medical service: a prospective study from Northern Finland

Characteristic All patients (n = 50) Definitive treatment not delayed (n = 33) Definitive treatment delayed (n = 17) p value
Distance to hospital (km), mean (SD)
 By road 186 (68) 200 (69) 157 (57) 0.028a
 By air 152 (55) 165 (55) 126 (48) 0.017a
Transport time (min),mean (SD)
 GEMS (actual) 118 (43) 128 (43) 101 (36) 0.032a
 HEMS (estimated) 36 (13) 40 (13) 30 (12) 0.017a
 Difference GEMS vs. HEMS 82 (33) 88 (34) 71 (27) 0.067a
Estimated saving of time by HEMS, n (%)     0.17b
  < 60 min 13 (26) 6 (18) 7 (41)  
 60–90 min 22 (44) 15 (46) 7 (41)  
  > 90 min 15 (30) 12 (36) 3 (18)  
Estimated flight procedure, n (%)     0.63b
 VFR completely 9 (18) 5 (15) 4 (23)  
 Partly VFR and partly IFR 32 (64) 21 (64) 11 (65)  
 IFR completely 9 (18) 7 (21) 2 (12)  
  1. GEMS ground emergency medical service, HEMS helicopter emergency medical service, IFR instrument flight rules, VFR visual flight rules
  2. a Independent samples t test, b Fisher exact test