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Table 1 Report of 21 patients with estimated delay in definitive treatment

From: Impact of icing weather conditions on the patients in helicopter emergency medical service: a prospective study from Northern Finland

Patient Age (years) Gender ASA Type of mission Type of transport Road distance to hospital (km) Actual transport time (min) Estimated saving of time by helicopter transport (min) Estimated (or actual) flight procedure Diagnosis
Immediate move to ICU, PCI or surgical operation
 #1 45 Female 1 Snowmobile accident BG helicopter 179 50 Transported by helicopter Actual VFR and IFR Subarachnoid haemorrhage and pulmonary contusion
 #2 80 Male 3 Unconsciousness Ambulance and RRC 153 80 48 VFR Unconsciousness of occlusion and acidosis
 #3 64 Male 2 Chest pain Ambulance and RRC 135 63 42 VFR STEMI, primary PCI
 #4 40 Female 2 Downhill skiing accident Ambulance and RRC 174 121 85 VFR and IFR Kidney injury
 #5 75 Male 3 Dyspnoea Ambulance and RCC 167 115 84 VFR and IFR Pneumonia with RS-virus
 #6 77 Male 3 Chest pain Ambulance and own HEMS unit 330 229 Transported partly by helicopter Actual VFR STEMI, rescue PCI
 #7 68 Male 3 Unconsciousness Ambulance and RRC 154 121 89 IFR Basilar artery thrombosis and brainstem stroke
 #8 73 Female 2 Chest pain Ambulance and RRC 118 72 49 VFR STEMI, primary PCI
 #9 78 Female 2 Cardiac arrest Ambulance and RRC 105 71 50 VFR and IFR Cardiac arrest, ROSC in 20 min
 #10 81 Male 3 Stroke Ambulance 260 151 97 VFR and IFR Intracerebral haemorrhage
 #11 78 Male 2 Chest pain Ambulance and RRC 172 108 72 IFR Recurrent ventricular tachycardia
Transfer to university hospital within 24 h
 #12 18 Male 1 Snowmobile accident BG helicopter 360 77 Transported by helicopter to UH Actual VFR and IFR Paraparesis
 #13 61 Male 3 Emergency transfer to UH Ambulance 226 117 77 VFR and IFR Cardiac tamponade, immediate thoracotomy at UH
 #14 29 Male 1 Traffic accident Ambulance and another HEMS unit 473 200 Transported partly by helicopter to UH Actual VFR Pelvic and thigh contusion
 #15 74 Female 2 Chest pain and unconsciousness Ambulance and RRC 102 77 56 VFR and IFR Aortic dissection, type A
 #16 64 Male 2 Tractor accident Ambulance and RRC 28 24 20 VFR and IFR Critical hand injury
 #17 17 Female 1 Snowmobile accident Ambulance and RRC 227 172 128 VFR and IFR Multi-trauma patient
 #18 75 Female 2 Traffic accident Ambulance and RRC 146 93 69 VFR and IFR Multi-trauma patient
 #19 15 Male 1 Snowmobile accident Ambulance 228 120 (to UH) 78 VFR and IFR Amputation of hand
Dead within 24 h
 #20 55 Female 3 Cardiac arrest Ambulance and RRC 133 75 49 VFR and IFR Cardiac arrest, ROSC in 17 min
 #21 81 Female 3 Unconsciousness Ambulance and RRC 134 134 108 VFR and IFR Subarachnoid haemorrhage
  1. ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class, BG Border Guard, ICU intensive care unit, IFR instrument flight rules, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation, RRC rapid response car, STEMI ST-elevation myocardial infarction, UH university hospital, VFR visual flight rules