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Table 4 Risk factor analysis of in-hospital mortality of patients with splenic injuries

From: Hospital level variations in the trends and outcomes of the nonoperative management of splenic injuries – a nationwide cohort study

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Non-operative management operative management p value Odds ratio p value
Gender      0.867   
 Male 7497 (70.7%) 665 (70.4%)   1  
 Female 3109 (29.3%) 280 (29.6%)   1.004 (0.842–1.195) 0.961
Age group      < 0.001*   
 18–40 5851 (55.2%) 359 (38.0%)   1  
 40–65 3706 (34.9%) 345 (36.5%)   1.572 (1.302–1.897) < 0.001 *
 > 65 1049 (9.9%) 241 (25.5%)   4.228 (3.336–5.356) < 0.001 *
Hospital level      0.344   
 Tertiary center 4104 (38.7%) 381 (40.3%)   1  
 Non-center hospital 6502 (61.3%) 564 (59.7%)   0.943 (0.801–1.111) 0.484
Management      < 0.001*   
 Non-operative 6147 (58.0%) 350 (37.0%)   1  
 Surgical 4459 (42.0%) 595 (63.0%)   0.974 (0.813–1.166) 0.777
Associated injury
 Traumatic brain injury 1546 (14.6%) 398 (42.1%) < 0.001* 4.693 (3.963–5.558) < 0.001 *
 Cardiopulmonary injury 546 (5.1%) 93 (9.8%) < 0.001* 2.078 (1.566–2.734) < 0.001 *
 Hemothorax 1667 (15.7%) 241 (25.5%) < 0.001* 1.474 (1.219–1.777) < 0.001 *
 Gastrointestinal injury 820 (7.7%) 140 (14.8%) < 0.001* 1.579 (1.240–2.001) < 0.001 *
 Kidney injury 1141 (10.8%) 104 (11.0%) 0.857 1.237 (0.958–1.584) 0.097
 Liver injury 1157 (10.9%) 263 (27.8%) < 0.001* 2.694 (2.224–3.259) < 0.001 *
 Pelvic fracture 378 (3.6%) 73 (7.7%) < 0.001* 1.941 (1.406–2.652) < 0.001 *
 Femoral fracture 420 (4.0%) 63 (6.7%) < 0.001* 1.028 (0.731–1.428) 0.870
 Spine fracture 357 (3.4%) 37 (3.9%) 0.425 0.857 (0.559–1.282) 0.465
Underlying disease
 Diabetes mellitus 655 (6.2%) 97 (10.3%) < 0.001* 0.955 (0.706–1.281) 0.761
 Hypertension 944 (8.9%) 132 (14.0%) < 0.001* 1.016 (0.764–1.342) 0.912
 Coronary artery disease 294 (2.8%) 60 (6.3%) < 0.001* 1.175 (0.801–1.703) 0.402
 COPD 162 (1.5%) 36 (3.8%) < 0.001* 1.711 (1.080–2.652) 0.019 *
 Cirrhosis 381 (3.6%) 128 (13.5%) < 0.001* 3.861 (2.927–5.072) < 0.001 *
 Chronic kidney disease 57 (0.5%) 24 (2.5%) < 0.001* 1.938 (0.804–4.584) 0.136
 Cancer 197 (1.9%) 35 (3.7%) < 0.001* 1.107 (0.693–1.722) 0.660
RBC transfusion > 20 Ua 635 (6.0%) 507 (53.7%) < 0.001* 13.285 (11.037–16.025) < 0.001 *
Year of injury      0.043   
 2002–2005 3438 (32.4%) 301 (31.9%)   1  
 2006–2009 3542 (33.4%) 351 (37.1%)   1.152 (0.951–1.397) 0.149
 2010–2013 3626 (34.2%) 293 (31.0%)   1.066 (0.872–1.303) 0.534
  1. Multivariate analysis is calculated by logistic regression, () represent 95%confidence interval in odds ration
  2. PRBC packed red blood cell
  3. *Statistically significant difference (p < 0.05)
  4. aTaiwan unit, blood product separated from 250 ml of whole blood