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Table 3 Comparison of the characteristics of splenic injury patients by management

From: Hospital level variations in the trends and outcomes of the nonoperative management of splenic injuries – a nationwide cohort study

  Non-operative management n = 6497 Surgical management n = 5054 p value
Gender      0.031*
 Male 4538 (69.8%) 3624 (71.7%)  
 Female 1959 (30.2%) 1430 (28.3%)  
Age group      0.003*
 18–40 3538 (54.5%) 2672 (52.9%)  
 40–65 2290 (35.2%) 1761 (34.8%)  
 > 65 669 (10.3%) 621 (12.3%)  
Hospital level      < 0.001*
 Tertiary center 2904 (44.7%) 1581 (31.3%)  
 Non-center 3593 (55.3%) 3473 (68.7%)  
Associated injury
 Traumatic brain injury 1029 (15.8%) 915 (18.1%) 0.001*
 Cardiopulmonary injury 388 (6.0%) 251 (5.0%) 0.021*
 Hemothorax 1091 (16.8%) 817 (16.2%) 0.382
 Gastrointestinal injury 265 (4.1%) 695 (13.8%) < 0.001*
 Kidney injury 812 (12.5%) 433 (8.6%) < 0.001*
 Liver injury 729 (11.2%) 691 (13.7%) < 0.001*
 Pelvic fracture 279 (4.3%) 172 (3.4%) 0.016*
 Femoral fracture 227 (3.5%) 256 (5.1%) < 0.001*
 Spinal fracture 281 (4.3%) 113 (2.2%) < 0.001*
Total blood transfusion (unit)a median [IQR]
 PRBC 0 [0, 4] 8 [4, 14] < 0.001*
 FFP 0 [0, 0] 4 [0, 12] < 0.001*
 Platelet 0 [0, 0] 0 [0, 0] < 0.001*
 WB 0 [0,0] 0 [0, 0] < 0.001*
Hospital stay (days) median [IQR] 8 [5, 12] 11 [8, 17] < 0.001*
ICU stay (days) median [IQR] 2 [0, 3] 3 [1, 5] < 0.001*
Ventilator support days median [IQR] 0 [0, 0] 1 [0, 4] < 0.001*
Complications
 Pneumonia 94 (1.4%) 103 (2.0%) 0.018*
 Sepsis 150 (2.3%) 109 (2.2%) 0.628
 Wound infection 23 (0.4%) 33 (0.7%) 0.031*
 Stroke 13 (0.2%) 19 (0.4%) 0.108
 Gastrointestinal bleeding 119 (1.8%) 133 (2.6%) 0.004*
In-hospital mortality 350 (5.4%) 595 (11.8%) < 0.001*
ISS > 16 954 (14.7%) 1255 (24.8%) < 0.001*
  1. PRBC packed red blood cell, FFP fresh frozen plasma, WB whole blood, IQR interquartile range
  2. *Statistically significant difference
  3. aTaiwan unit, blood product separated from 250 ml of whole blood