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Table 2 Unadjusted outcomes

From: Comparison of a novel, endoscopic chest tube insertion technique versus the standard, open technique performed by novice users in a human cadaver model: a randomized, crossover, assessor-blinded study

Outcome Standard Technique N = 46 Reactor™ Technique N = 46 P-value
Successful tube placement, n (%) 34 (73.9) 19 (41.3) 0.0029
 Correctly placed in pleural space, n (%) 44 (95.6) 39 (84.8) 0.158
 Kinked tube, n (%) 8 (17.4) 14 (30.4) 0.051
 Placed in fissure, n (%) 3 (6.5) 7 (15.2) 0.075
Insertion time (sec) Median (IQR) 76.9 (55.3–106.9) 47.3 (38–63.1) < 0.0001
Incision length (mm) Median (IQR) 32 (26–40) 28 (23–30) 0.0034
Perceived difficulty (1–10 scale; 10 most difficult) Mean (SD) 4.7 (1.9) 3.8 (1.9) 0.024
  1. IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation