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Table 2 Baseline and clinical characteristics according to intensity of post-resuscitation care, n (%)

From: Factors determining level of hospital care and its association with outcome after resuscitation from pre-hospital pulseless electrical activity

  All
n = 221
Ward
n = 28
Level 1 ICU
n = 16
Level 2 ICU
n = 138
Level 3 ICU
n = 39
p
Age (y), mean ± SD 64.0 ± 15.1 70.1 ± 15.2 75.6 ± 7.8 63.5 ± 14.9 56.7 ± 14.2 < 0.001
Male 143 (64.7) 20 (71.4) 9 (56.3) 92 (66.7) 22 (56.4) 0.48
Pre-arrest diagnoses
 Hypertension 102 (46.4) 13 (46.4) 9 (56.3) 60 (43.8) 20 (51.3) 0.96
 Coronary artery disease 44 (20.0) 8 (28.6) 5 (31.3) 29 (21.2) 2 (5.1) 0.02
 Diabetes 57 (25.9) 5 (17.9) 9 (56.3) 37 (27.0) 6 (15.4) 0.43
 Heart failure 28 (12.7) 7 (25.0) 3 (18.8) 16 (11.7) 2 (5.1) 0.01
 Renal failure 15 (6.8) 3 (10.7) 1 (6.3) 9 (6.6) 2 (5.1) 0.39
 Memory impairment 20 (9.1) 3 (10.7) 4 (25.0) 11 (8.0) 2 (5.1) 0.17
 Other brain disease¤ 37 (16.8) 6 (21.4) 4 (25.0) 23 (16.8) 4 (10.3) 0.18
Pre-arrest performance       0.02
 1 138 (62.7) 15 (53.6) 6 (37.5) 89 (65.0) 28 (71.8)  
 2 26 (11.8) 3 (10.7) 0 (0.0) 19 (13.9) 4 (10.3)  
 3 54 (24.5) 10 (35.7) 10 (62.5) 28 (20.4) 6 (15.4)  
 4 2 (0.9) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.7) 1 (2.6)  
Pre-arrest performance ECOG       0.001
 0 88 (40.2) 7 (25) 3 (18.8) 53 (39.0) 25 (64.1)  
 1 52 (23.7) 8 (28.6) 3 (18.8) 37 (27.2) 4 (10.3)  
 2 26 (11.9) 3 (10.7) 0 (0.0) 18 (13.2) 5 (12.8)  
 3 53 (24.2) 10 (35.7) 10 (62.5) 28 (20.6) 5 (12.8)  
Pre-arrest CPC       < 0.001
 1 114 (52.1) 10 (35.7) 5 (31.3) 69 (50.7) 30 (76.9)  
 2 57 (26.0) 8 (28.6) 1 (6.3) 41 (30.1) 7 (17.9)  
 3 48 (21.9) 10 (35.7) 10 (62.5) 26 (19.1) 2 (5.1)  
Accomodation type       0.02
 Home, independent 152 (71.0) 18 (66.7) 6 (37.5) 99 (74.4) 29 (76.3)  
 Home, assisted 36 (16.8) 5 (18.5) 4 (25.0) 18 (13.5) 9 (23.7)  
 Nursing home 26 (12.1) 4 (14.8) 6 (37.5) 16 (12.0) 0 (0.0)  
Resuscitation details
 Witnessed CA 193 (88.1) 26 (92.9) 14 (87.5) 115 (84.6) 38 (97.4) 0.79
 Bystander CPR 70 (34.0) 9 (33.3) 2 (15.4) 44 (34.4) 15 (39.5) 0.41
 Response time, median IQR 6 (0–9) 7 (1–9) 7 (0–9) 5 (0–9) 5 (0–8) 0.67
 ROSC time, median (IQR) 18 (12–23) 17 (12–23) 22 (16–25) 18 (12–22) 17 (13–25) 0.63
Cause of CA       0.048
 Cardiac 66 (30.3) 8 (28.6) 6 (37.5) 40 (29.6) 12 (30.8)  
 Hypoxia 61 (28.0) 10 (35.7) 6 (37.5) 36 (26.7) 9 (23.1)  
 Intoxication 16 (7.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 11 (8.1) 5 (12.8)  
 Neurological 21 (9.6) 4 (14.3) 4 (25.0) 12 (8.9) 1 (2.6)  
 Other 24 (11.0) 2 (7.1) 0 (0.0) 20 (14.8) 2 (5.1)  
 Unknown 30 (13.8) 4 (14.3) 0 (0.0) 16 (11.9) 10 (25.6)  
  1. ICU intensive care unit, CPC cerebral performance category, CA cardiac arrest, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation, SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, ECOG Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group
  2. Response and ROSC times are presented in minutes, as median (IQR)
  3. ¤diagnoses of previous intracranial haemorrhage, stroke, contusion, severe congenital disability, brain atrophy, encephalitis, and brain tumour
  4. See Methods for details of performance, ECOG and CPC classifications. P-values < 0.05 indicate significant difference between at least two Levels of care (age, response-and ROSC times) or significant trend in results when Level of care increases (other variables). Thus P-value < 0.05 in headings of pre-arrest performance, ECOG, CPC, accommodation type and cause of cardiac arrest indicates that there is significant difference between groups in at least one of the values (for example in amount of CPC 1, CPC 2 or CPC 3) and there is a trend according to increasing Level of care. If the resulting p-value is > 0.05, it means there is no significant difference between any of the values. Probability test used are explained in detail in the Methods section