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Table 2 Clinical characteristics and outcomes comparing 126 TBI patients (isolated TBI and TBI and polytrauma) with EoT+ (syndecan-1 ≥ 40 ng/ml) vs. EoT- (syndecan-1 < 40 ng/ml) and 205 polytrauma patients without TBI

From: Traumatic brain injury is associated with increased syndecan-1 shedding in severely injured patients

  Polytrauma only P value TBI P value
EoT- (N = 123) EoT+ (N = 82) EoT- (N = 76) EoT+ (N = 50)
ISS 17 [13–26] 24 [17–30] 0.001 25 [18–29] 32 [26–41] < 0.001
SBP, mmHg 103 [88–126] 120 [98–142] 0.001 135 [116–150] 115 [100–140] 0.006
HR, beats/minute 96 [84–114] 97 [81–120] 0.9 84 [70–104] 100 [84–111] 0.007
BE, mEq/l −3 [−6 to 0] −6 [−8 to −2] 0.002 − 3 [−5 to 0] −5 [− 8 to − 1] 0.01
GCS 13 [3–15] 7 [3–15] 0.34 3 [3–9] 3 [3–7] 0.7
Polytrauma, n (%)   31 (39.2) 39 (70.9) < 0.0001
rTEG values
 ACT, seconds 113 [105–121] 121 [113–125] 0.04 105 [105–121] 121 [105–136] 0.004
 MA, mm 65 [62–69] 63 [58–68] 0.03 65 [60–69] 62 [58–67] 0.006
 α- angle, degrees 75 [72–78] 73 [70–77] 0.004 73 [70–77] 72 [69–76] 0.12
Biomarkers
 sTM, ng/ml 5.0 [3.8–6.9] 7.9 [5.6–9.4] < 0.001 5.1 [4.3–7.2] 7.4 [5.8–9.9] < 0.0001
 Syndecan-1, ng/ml 19.3 [11.3–30.2] 94.4 [59.0–155.6] N/A 17.9 [11.6–30.5] 109.6 [71.1–217.8] N/A
 Adrenalinea, ρg/ml 93.4 [36.7–287.6] 185.7 [64.4–618.8] 0.01 106.7 [38.0–311.4] 339.0 [132.6–786.5] < 0.001
 Noradrenalinea, ρg/ml 846.2 [312.9–1340.3] 1530.2 [570.1–1825.9] 0.03 588.9 [345.9–1148.9] 1143.1 [589.2–1866.1] < 0.001
Outcomes
 Transfused, n (%) 49 (39.8) 65 (79.3) < 0.01 36 (47.4) 37 (74.0) 0.003
 Hospital-free days 18 [6–25] 12 [0–21] 0.03 10 [0–20] 2 [0–12] 0.06
 ICU-free days 27 [20–30] 23 [11–29] 0.01 17 [0–27] 12 [0–22] 0.14
 24-h mortality, n (%) 1 (0.8) 6 (7.3) 0.02 5 (6.6) 5 (10.0) 0.5
 48-h mortality, n (%) 4 (3.2) 9 (11.0) 0.04 12 (22.4) 9 (18.0) 0.8
 72-h mortality, n (%) 6 (4.9) 10 (12.2) 0.07 12 (22.4) 12 (24.0) 0.25
 30-day mortality, n (%) 13 (10.6) 14 (17.1) 0.1 24 (31.5) 17 (34.0) 0.6
  1. Abbreviations: TBI traumatic brain injury, EoT traumatic endotheliopathy, ISS Injury Severity Score, AIS Abbreviated Injury Score, SBP systolic blood pressure, HR heart rate, BE base excess, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, rTEG rapid thrombelastography, ACT activated clotting time, MA maximum amplitude, sTM soluble thrombomodulin, ICU intensive care unit
  2. aData available for only 226 patients