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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of 331 trauma patients

From: Traumatic brain injury is associated with increased syndecan-1 shedding in severely injured patients

  All patients N = 331 Non-TBI Polytrauma N = 205 Poly TBI N = 68 Isolated TBI N = 58 P value
Demography
 Age, y 43 [29–58]a 42 [27–57] 44 [34–58] 50 [33–76] 0.12
 Male, n (%) 236 (71.3) 145 (70.7) 52 (76.5) 39 (67.2) 0.5
 ISS 22 [16–29] 19 [14–27] 34 [27–41]d 25 [16–26]e < 0.0001
 Head AIS = 3, n (%) 45 (35.7)b 30 (44.1) 15 (25.9) 0.015
 Head AIS = 4, n (%) 35 (27.8)b 21 (30.9) 14 (24.1)  
 Head AIS ≥ 5, n (%) 45 (35.7)b 16 (23.5) 29 (50.0)  
ED Vital Signs and Laboratory Values
 SBP, mmHg 119 [99–140] 114 [93–137]f 116 [100–139] 140 [128–158]e 0.0001
 HR, beats/min 95 [79–112] 96 [83–119]f 93 [77–111] 86 [70–102] 0.004
 BE, mEq/l −4 [−7 to 0] − 4 [− 7 to − 1]f −5 [− 8 to − 2] − 1 [− 5 to 2]e 0.0001
 Platelet count, 109/l 221 [185–270] 224 [189–278]f 222 [189–264] 206 [172–256] 0.2
 Hemoglobin, g/dl 13.0 [11.6–14.2] 13.0 [11.6–14.4] 13.2 [11.5–13.9] 13 [11.9–14.4] 0.86
 GCS 6 [3–15] 10 [3–15]f 3 [3–9]d 3 [3–9] 0.0001
Biomarkers
 sTM, ng/ml 6.2 [4.6–8.4] 6.1 [4.4–8.2] 6.5 [5.1–8.8] 5.6 [4.3–9.3] 0.24
 Syndecan-1, ng/ml 33.2 [16.6–79.1] 31.5 [15.5–61.2] 54.0 [25.1–107.0]d 25.0 [15.5–44.4]e 0.0007
 EoT+, n (%) 132 (39.8) 82 (40.0) 38 (55.9)d 12 (20.6)e 0.001
Outcomes
 Transfused, n (%) 191 (58.1) 114 (55.6) 50 (73.5)d 27 (46.5)e 0.014
 24-h mortality, n (%) 18 (5.4) 7 (3.4)f 4 (5.9) 6 (10.3) 0.025
 48-h mortality, n (%) 37 (11.2) 16 (7.8)f 9 (13.2) 12 (20.7) 0.02
 72-h mortality, n (%) 40 (12.1) 16 (7.8)f 11 (16.2)d 13 (22.4) < 0.0001
 30-day mortality, n (%) 68 (20.5) 27 (13.2)f 19 (27.9)d 22 (37.9) < 0.0001
  1. Abbreviations: TBI traumatic brain injury, ISS Injury Severity Score, AIS Abbreviated Injury Score, ED emergency room, SBP systolic blood pressure, HR heart rate, BE base excess, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, sTM soluble thrombomodulin, EoT traumatic endotheliopathy
  2. aValues are medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) unless otherwise specified
  3. bOnly in 126 patients
  4. cData for only 226 patients
  5. dStatistically significant difference between the Polytrauma TBI and Non-TBI polytrauma groups
  6. eStatistically significant difference between the Polytrauma TBI and Isolated TBI groups
  7. fStatistically significant difference between the Non-TBI and Isolated TBI groups