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Table 4 The Biffl injury grading scale for BCVI

From: Best practice guidelines for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI)

Biffl injury grade Angiograhic characteristics
I Luminal irregularity or dissection with < 25% luminal narrowing
II Dissection or intramural hematoma with ≥25% luminal narrowing
III Pseudoaneurysm
IV Occlusion
V Transection with free extravasation
  1. From Biffl et al.: Blunt carotid arterial injuries: implications of a new grading scale (Biffl et al. 1999)