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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: The effect of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation on the survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: a systematic review and meta-analysis

NO. Author(year) Location/Period Population Age (yrs) Mean EMS response time (minutes) Outcomes Adjustment for covariates
1 Cummins(1985) [28] Washington, America (1976.04–1983.09) OHCAs (1297) Mean 64.7 N/A 1.survival to hospital discharge Witnessed arrest, age, sex, and EMS response time
2 Swor(1995) [29] Oakland, American (1989.06–1993.06) OHCAs (722) VT/VF (476) 65.9 ALS/BLS 6.5/3.6 1.VT/VF 2. live discharge 3. ROSC 4. survival to hospital admission 5. survival at 1 year Age, ALS response interval
3 Weston(1997) [17] Glamorgan, England (1989–1992) OHCAs (954) N/A N/A 1. admission to hospital 2. discharge from hospital Age, sex, arrival status, cause of arrest, rhythm of arrest and the delay to ALS
4 Stiell(1999) [30] Ontario (1991.01–1995.01) OHCAs (5335) Mean 68 N/A 1. survival to discharge Age, bystanders witnessed arrest, fire CPR, EMS response time
5 Holmberg(2000) [18] Sweden (990.01–1995.05) OHCAs (9877) Med 70 N/A 1. 30-day survival Age, location of arrest, witnessed status, time between call to first ECG
6 Finn(2001) [32] Perth,Australia (1996–1999) OHCAs (1293) VT/VF (286) Mean65 N/A 1. initial cardiac arrest rhythm of VF/VT in bystander-witnessed cardiac arrests of presumed cardiac origin 2. 28-day survival Age, gender
7 Herlitz,(2003) [19] Goteborg, Sweden (1980.10–2000.10) OHCAs (5505) N/A N/A 1. survival to hospital discharge age, previous history, chronic medication before cardiac arrest, events at resuscitation, and status on admission to hospital
8 Herlitz(2005) [20] Sweden (1990–2000) OHCAs (22024) Mean71 med 73 Med 6 1. survival to 1 month age, sex, location of arrest, witnessed status, initial cardiac rhythm, EMS response time
9 Iwami(2007) [25] Osaka, Japan (1998.05–2003.04) OHCAs (4902) VT/VF (696) Mean 62 Mean 9.7 1. neurologically favorable 1-year survival 2. return of spontaneous circulation; admission to hospital; and 1-week, 1-month, and 1-year survival 3. VT/VF Age, witnessed status, place, defibrillation, EMS response time
10 Herlitz(2008) [34] Sweden (1990–2005) OHCAs (22465) Mean 67 N/A 1. 30-day survival Age, witnessed status, place, defibrillation, EMS response time
11 Nordberg(2009) [21] Sweden (1992.01–2005.12) OHCAs (34125) Mean 63 Med 7.5 1. 30-day survival 2. VT/VF Age, sex, witnessed status, initial rhythm, EMS response time
12 Adielsson(2011) [6] Sweden (1990.01–2009.12) OHCAs: VT/VF (7187) N/A N/A 1. 30-day survival 2. patients who survived to hospital admission Age, sex, the site of cardiac arrest, Increasing delay to defibrillation
13 Lindner(2011) [22] Stavanger, Norway (2001.01–2008.12) OHCAs (846) Mean 71 Med 8.5 1. ROSC 2. survival to discharge age, year, witnessed status, initial cardiac rhythm, EMS response time
14 Wissenberg(2013) [23] Denmark (2001–2010) OHCAs (19468) Med 72 Med 11 1. 30-day survival age, sex
15 Nehme(2015) [33] Victoria, Australian (2002.07–2012.06) OHCAs VT/VF (5561) Med 70 Med 8.0 1. survival to hospital discharge 2. survival to hospital discharge (shockable rhythm) age, sex, year of arrest, witnessed status, initial cardiac rhythm, EMS response time
16 Lai (2015) [26] Singapore (2001–2004,2010–2012) OHCAs (5453) Mean 62 Med 6.2 1. survival to discharge age, year, witnessed status, initial cardiac rhythm, EMS response time, Mechanical CPR by EMS, prehospital advanced airway, medicine
17 Hasselqvist-Ax(2015) [24] Sweden (1990.01–2011.12) OHCAs (30381) VT/VF (10094) Med 72 Med 7 1. 30-day survival 2. VT/VF age, sex, location and cause of cardiac arrest, initial cardiac rhythm, EMS response time, time from collapse to call for EMS, and year of event
18 Gaieski(2017) [31] Philadelphia (2008–2012) OHCAs (4625) Med 64 Med 6.6 1. prehospital ROSC 2. 30-day survival Age, sex, shockable rhythm, time of arrest, witnessed status, location of cardiac arrest, prehospital AED
19 Tanaka(2017) [27] Asia (2009.01–2012.12) OHCAs (56765) Mean 72.7 Med 76.0 N/A 1. survival to hospital discharge or 30 day hospital survival 2. favorable postarrest cerebral performance age, bystander-witnessed arrest, shockable rhythm, bystander CPR, out-of-hospital defibrillation, advanced airway and drug administration, and response time
  1. OHCAs out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, VT ventricular tachycardia, VF ventricular fibrillation, ALS advanced life support, BLS basic life support, ROSC restoration of spontaneous circulation, EMS Emergency medical services, Med median, N/A not available