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Table 2 Uni- and multi-variable binary logistic regression analysis to predict ED lengths of stay > 4 h

From: Independent determinants of prolonged emergency department length of stay in a tertiary care centre: a prospective cohort study

  Univariable analysis OR (95%-CI) Multivariable analysis Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Age 1.02 (1.02–1.03)
Gender (male) 0.99 (0.77–1.29)
Arrival by ambulance 1.54 (1.18–2.00)
Number of presenting complaints 1.63 (1.42–1.88) 1.19 (1.00–1.41)
Referral status
 Self-referral Ref  
 General practitioner 2.12 (1.55–2.90)
 Specialist 1.07 (0.73–1.57)
Triage category
 Green and blue Ref  
 Yellow 3.10 (2.07–4.64)
 Red and orange 2.89 (1.88–4.46)
Number of comorbiditiesa 1.52 (1.37–1.68)
Triage complaint
 Other Ref Ref
 Headache 5.88 (2.11–16.39) 3.66 (1.08–12.41)
 Dyspnoea 2.34 (1.46–3.75) 1.48 (0.83–2.65)
 Chest pain 3.18 (1.95–5.18) 2.91 (1.49–5.71)
 Palpitations 1.21 (0.51–2.88) 0.69 (0.24–2.00)
 Abdominal pain 2.22 (1.37–3.60) 1.20 (0.65–2.22)
 Malaise 2.18 (1.46–3.25) 1.37 (0.84–2.24)
 Small traumatic injury 0.47 (0.28–0.79) 0.91 (0.49–1.70)
 Syncope 1.14 (0.48–2.71) 1.03 (0.39–2.77)
Treating physician
 Other specialtiesb Ref Ref
 ED physician 1.19 (0.77–1.83) 0.67 (0.38–1.17)
 Internal medicine 3.82 (2.38–6.12) 2.10 (1.21–3.66)
 Cardiology 2.54 (1.45–4.43) 1.36 (0.63–2.89)
 Surgery 1.51 (0.74–3.08) 1.92 (0.80–4.65)
 Neurology 3.37 (1.83–6.18) 2.24 (1.06–4.73)
Diagnostic testing
 Blood testing 10.30 (6.44–16.46) 3.45 (1.95–6.11)
 Urine testing 3.55 (2.67–4.71) 1.79 (1.21–2.63)
 Radiology imaging 4.51 (3.36–6.05) 3.02 (2.13–4.30)
Consultation 4.87 (3.70–6.41) 5.92 (4.08–8.60)
Number of patients in ED at the time of ED registration
 0–5 patients Ref Ref
 6–10 patients 1.23 (0.81–1.86) 1.22 (0.76–2.00)
 11–15 patients 1.30 (0.87–1.96) 1.37 (0.85–2.23)
  > 15 patients 1.65 (1.05–2.58) 2.21 (1.30–3.75)
Disposition
 Home Ref Ref
 Admission ward 2.80 (2.14–3.67) 2.00 (0.75–1.40)
 Admission ICU/MCU 1.63 (0.79–3.36) 0.26 (0.10–0.66)
  1. Uni- and Multi-variable binary logistic regression analysis was performed with backward entry of all variables. Data are presented as odds ratio (OR (95% CI)). The Hosmer-Lemeshows test had a p-value of 0.905. The area under the curve (c-statistic) was 0.850 (0.827 to 0.873). The VIFs varied between 1.00 and 1.47, never above 3. N = 1434
  2. A “– “indicates that the variable was eliminated from the model, and no independent determinant in the multivariable regression analysis
  3. a The CCI and number of comorbidities were analyzed separately. Both were not associated with ED LOS > 4 h
  4. b Other specialties were pediatrics, ophthalmology, dermatology, otorhinolaryngology, psychiatry and gynecology
  5. Abbreviations: ED emergency department, Ref reference, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval