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Table 4 Absolute and relative indications for advanced airway management

From: Advanced airway management in hoist and longline operations in mountain HEMS – considerations in austere environments: a narrative review This review is endorsed by the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM)

Absolute indication
 Apnea or agonal respiration
 Traumatic brain injury (TBI) with insufficient ventilation or oxygenation despite high flow O2
 Severe (chest) trauma patient with insufficient ventilation or oxygenation despite high flow O2
 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with mechanical chest compression devices, e.g., due to a hypothermic arrest (after an avalanche accident, a fall into a crevasse, or extreme physical exhaustion) [23]
Relative indication
 GCS < 9 with preserved oxygenation