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Table 2 Demographic and clinical data between the patients developing major hemorrhages on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the patients not

From: Predictors of hospital mortality in adult trauma patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for advanced life support: a retrospective cohort study

  Hemorrhagic patient (n = 12) Non-hemorrhagic patient (n = 24) P
Pre-ECMO demographic data
 Age (year) 34 (25–52) 37 (27–49) 0.86
 Male 9 (75) 22 (92) 0.31
 ISS 33 (19–75) 29 (19–43) 0.54
 Traumatic brain injury 2 (17) 2 (8) 0.59
 MV hours 15 (5–44) 33 (8–139) 0.28
 Damage control intervention 9 (75) 14 (58) 0.47
 ER-to-ECMO hours 17 (6–42) 48 (12–166) 0.053
Data obtained just before ECMO
 pH 7.26 (7.13–7.34) 7.20 (7.09–7.37) 0.80
 Mean arterial pressure (mmHg)a 54 (35–66) 64 (50–86) 0.16
 PaO2 (mmHg) 48 (42–66) 52 (40–68) 0.88
 PaCO2 (mmHg) 50 (39–70) 52 (39–72) 0.78
 PaO2/FiO2(mmHg) 48 (42–66) 49 (40–83) 0.61
 Peak inspiratory pressure (cmH2O) 35 (32–40) 35 (31–39) 0.88
 PEEP (cmH2O) 22 (14–25) 19 (15–24) 0.75
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12 (10–15) 11 (9–15) 0.61
 Platelet count (× 109/L) 93 (73–164) 171 (89–220) 0.07
 aPTT (second) 52 (36–100) 33 (29–39) 0.01*
Venovenous ECMO 7 (58) 15 (63) 1.0
ECMO-assisted CPR 2 (17) 3 (13) 1.0
Complication on ECMO
 Requiring CRRT 4 (33) 6 (25) 0.70
 Brain event 2 (17) 5 (21) 0.03*
ECMO hour 101 (45–248) 152 (71–271) 0.40
Hospital day 15 (6–50) 40 (24–51) 0.21
  1. Numerical variables are presented as median and interquartile range (IQR). Categorical variables are presented as number (percentage)
  2. aPTT Activated partial thromboplastin time, CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, CRRT Continuous renal replacement therapy, ECMO Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ER Emergency room, ISS Injury severity score, MV hour Mechanical ventilation hours before ECMO, PEEP Positive end-expiratory pressure, Brain event Brain hemorrhage or infarction
  3. aExclude patients with refractory cardiac arrest and requiring ECMO-assisted CPR
  4. *: p <  0.05