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Table 2 Grouped and condensed items for Foreign Body Airway Obstruction Management

From: What should be included in the assessment of laypersons’ paediatric basic life support skills? Results from a Delphi consensus study

Foreign Body Airway Obstruction Management
Item number Item Description Delphi round Responses (n) Distribution of likert ratings (%) Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p-value)
1 2 3 4 5
1 Identify different stages of foreign body airway obstruction Ability to distinguish effective and ineffective cough Second 26 0 0 12 46 42 0.58
Third 23 0 0 4 65 30
2 Identify consciousness Recognition of unresponsiveness Second 26 4 0 4 27 65 0.12
Third 23 0 0 0 13 87
3 Call for help Recognize need for help and alert surroundings Second 26 0 0 4 27 69 0.75
Third 23 0 0 9 17 74
4 Back blows High quality back blows with adequate force and correct place of impact Second 26 4 0 0 35 62 0.49
Third 22 0 5 9 18 68
5 Chest thrusts/abdominal thrusts according to age High quality chest thrust or abdominal thrust according to age Second 26 0 0 4 31 65 0.16
Third 22 0 0 0 27 73
6 Identify loss of consciousness and change to CPR Ability to recognize changes in condition and act appropriately Second 26 0 0 4 15 81 0.66
Third 23 0 0 0 17 83
7 Non technical skills Diagnose possible foreign body airway obstruction and act on prevention, situational awareness, communication skills, use of available resources Second 26 4 12 31 35 19 0.13
Third 23 4 13 52 30 0
8 Adherence to algorithm / time factor Ability to follow guidelines and minimise time delay in treatment Second 26 0 4 27 58 12 0.3
Third 22 0 9 32 59 0
9 Assessment of effect and recovery position Ability to recognise changes in condition (check mouth for foreign object between interventions) and act appropriately Second 26 0 12 27 46 15 0.75
Third 23 0 0 48 48 4
10 Mouth inspection Inspection and removal of visualized objects if confident item can be removed. This item concerns active actions to remove foreign objects if confident they can be removed Second 25 0 12 28 32 28 0.43
Third 23 0 13 35 39 13
11 Airway Adequate airway management (Altered in third round to) Ability to position head according to age to open airway Second 24 8 0 17 29 46 0.52
Third 22 14 9 14 14 50
12 Assessment of breathing Ability to assess breathing and recognition of respiratory arrest or abnormal breathing requiring ventilator support Second 26 0 0 8 42 50 0.75
Third 21 0 0 5 57 38
13 Ventilation Providing high quality ventilations if patient stops breathing. Ability to provide ventilations with chest rise Second 25 4 4 0 36 56 0.26
Third 22 0 0 5 32 64
14 Modification of algorithm Appropriate action of continued compressions and call for help when not wanting or able to do ventilations (if CPR is needed) Second 26 12 12 27 35 15 0.38
Third 23 9 9 48 26 9
15 Complete/ incomplete obstruction Ability to recognize complete or incomplete obstruction Second 26 0 19 35 27 19 0.5
Third 22 0 9 64 18 9
  1. The table shows the grouped and condensed items based on the participants’ responses in the first Delphi consensus round. Text in italics shows modifications in the descriptions from the second to the third round
  2. The table presents the distribution of ratings from the second and the third Delphi consensus round and Wilcoxon signed rank test of third round vs. second round distribution of scores for Foreign Body Airway Obstruction Management. Sum of percentages may not equal 100 due to the rounding of percentages