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Table 1 2015 ERC first aid recommendations

From: Danish first aid books compliance with the new evidence-based non-resuscitative first aid guidelines

Optimal position for a shock patient: “Place individuals with shock into the supine (lying on back) position. Where there is no evidence of trauma use passive leg raising to provide a further transient (<7 min) improvement in vital signs.”
Oxygen administration: There are no direct indications for the use of supplemental oxygen by first aid providers.
Bronchodilator administration: “Assist individuals with asthma who are experiencing difficulty in breathing with their bronchodilator administration. First aid providers must be trained in the various methods of administering a bronchodilator.”
Stroke recognition: “Use a stroke assessment system to decrease the time to recognition and definitive treatment for individuals with suspected acute stroke. First Aid providers must be trained in the use of FAST (Face, Arm, Speech Tool) or CPSS (Cincinnati Pre-hospital Stroke Scale) to assist in the early recognition of stroke.”
Administration of aspirin for chest pain: “In the pre-hospital environment, administer 150–300 mg chew- able aspirin early to adults with chest pain due to suspected myocardial infarction (ACS/AMI).”
Second dosage of adrenaline for anaphylaxis: “Administer a second intramuscular dose of adrenaline to individuals in the pre-hospital environment with anaphylaxis that has not been relieved within 5 to 15 min by an initial intramuscular auto-injector dose of adrenaline.”
Hypoglycaemia treatment: “Treat conscious patients with symptomatic hypoglycaemia with glucose tablets equating to glucose 15–20g. If glucose tablets are not available, use other dietary forms of sugar.”
Exertion-related dehydration and rehydration therapy: “Use 3–8% oral carbohydrate–electrolyte beverages for rehydration of individuals with simple exercise-induced dehydration.”
Exertion-related dehydration and rehydration therapy: “Use 3–8% oral carbohydrate–electrolyte beverages for rehydration of individuals with simple exercise-induced dehydration.”
Control of bleeding: “Apply direct pressure, with or without a dressing, to control external bleeding where possible. Do not try to control major external bleeding by the use of proximal pressure points or elevation of an extremity. However it may be beneficial to apply localized cold therapy, with or without pressure, for minor or closed extremity bleeding.”
Use of a tourniquet: “ Use a tourniquet when direct wound pressure cannot control severe external bleeding in a limb. Training is required to ensure the safe and effective application of a tourniquet.”
Straightening an angulated fracture Do not straighten an angulated long bone fracture. Protect the injured limb by splinting the fracture. Realignment of fractures should only be undertaken by those specifically trained to perform this procedure.
First aid treatment for an open chest wound: “Leave an open chest wound exposed to freely communicate with the external environment without applying a dressing, or cover the wound with a non-occlusive dressing if necessary. Control localised bleeding with direct pressure.”
Spinal motion restriction: “The routine application of a cervical collar by a first aid provider is not recommended. In suspected cervical spine injury, manually support the head in position limiting angular movement until experienced healthcare provision is available.”
Recognition of concussion: “Although a concussion scoring system would greatly assist first aid providers in the recognition of concussion, there is no simple validated scoring system in use in current practice. An individual with a suspected concussion should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.”
Cooling of burns: “Actively cool thermal burns as soon as possible for a minimum of 10 min duration using water.”
Burn dressings: “Subsequent to cooling, burns should be dressed with a loose sterile dressing.”
Dental avulsion: “If a tooth cannot be immediately re-implanted, store it in Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution. If this is not available use propolis, egg white, coconut water, ricetral, whole milk, saline or phosphate-buffered saline (in order of preference) and refer the individual to a dentist as soon as possible.”
  1. The 2015 ERC first aid recommendations are displayed
  2. ERC, Emergency Resuscitation Council