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Table 3 Patients Characteristics and Outcome of the Development Patients and the Validation Patients

From: Prognostic value of coagulation tests for in-hospital mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury

  Development Patients (n = 1643) n (%) Validation Patients (n = 676) n (%) P value
N 1643 676  
Age (yrs) (mean ± SD) 47.84 ± 16.03 48.07 ± 15.95 0.042
Sex
 Male 1253 (76.3) 509 (75.3) 0.620
 Female 390 (23.7) 167 (24.7)  
Mechanism of injury
 Motor vehicle accident 970 (59.0) 379 (56.1) 0.233
 Fall 215 (13.1) 109 (16.1)  
 Stumble 268 (16.3) 120 (17.8)  
 Blow to head 127 (7.7) 47 (7.0)  
 Others 63 (3.8) 21 (3.1)  
Pupillary reactions
 Both reacting 1413 (86.0) 612 (90.5) 0.011
 One reacting 169 (10.3) 45 (6.7)  
 None reacting 61 (3.7) 19 (2.8)  
Type of injury
 SDH 443 (27.0) 205 (30.3) 0.101
 EDH 468 (28.5) 172 (25.4) 0.137
 IPH 1076 (65.5) 495 (73.2) <0.001
 tSAH 811 (49.4) 426 (63.0) <0.001
 DAI 61 (3.7) 13 (1.9) 0.026
 Skull fracture 280 (17.0) 183 (27.1) <0.001
Injury severity
 GCS 3–8 486 (29.6) 176 (26.0) 0.180
 GCS 9–12 388 (23.6) 159 (23.5)  
 GCS 13–15 769 (46.8) 341 (50.4)  
INR 1.05 (1.00–1.11) 1.05 (1.00–1.12) 0.012
INR > 1.25 97 (5.9) 37 (5.5) 0.686
PT(s) 11.4 (10.9–12.1) 11.5 (10.9–12.3) <0.001
PT > 14 s 152 (9.3) 35 (5.2) 0.001
APTT(s) 24.1 (21.4–26.7) 24.4 (21.9–27.9) 0.05
APTT > 36 s 98 (6.0) 33 (4.9) 0.305
FIB(g/L) 2.3 (1.7–3.2) 2.3 (1.7–3.1) 0.638
FIB < 1.5 g/L 247 (15.0) 107 (15.8) 0.629
D-dimer (mg/L) 5.005 (2.240–13.810) 3.230 (1.240–11.540) <0.001
D-dimer <1 mg/L 729 (44.4) 202 (29.9) <0.001
D-dimer 1–5 mg/L 641 (39.0) 234 (34.6)  
D-dimer >5 mg/L 273 (16.6) 240 (35.5)  
PLT(×109/L) 177 (139–215) 171 (137–213) 0.999
PLT < 100 × 109/L 189 (11.5) 58 (8.6) 0.038
Coagulopathy 331 (20.1) 101 (14.9) 0.003
Hb(g/L) 130 (112–144) 131 (115–144) 0.023
HCT(%) 38.6 (33.6–42.3) 38.5 (34.4–41.8) 0.003
Glucose(mmol/L) 7.4 (6.2–8.6) 7.2 (6.3–8.6) 0.001
ICP monitoring 509 (31.0) 251 (37.1) 0.004
Craniectomy 406 (24.7) 134 (19.8) 0.011
Mortality 128 (7.8) 46 (6.8) 0.413
LOS 11 (7–17) 11 (7–18) <0.001