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Table 1 Summary of patient characteristics and coagulation tests by the severity of TBI

From: Prognostic value of coagulation tests for in-hospital mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury

  Severe injury (GCS 3–8) Moderate injury (GCS 9–12) Mild injury (GCS 13–15) Total
N 662 547 1110 2319
Age (yrs) (mean ± SD) 47.84 ± 16.03 48.07 ± 15.95 47.05 ± 17.03 47.52 ± 16.50
Sex
 Male 513 (77.5) 430 (78.6) 819 (73.8) 1762 (76.0)
 Female 149 (22.5) 117 (21.4) 291 (26.2) 557 (24.0)
Mechanism of injury
 Motor vehicle accident 422 (63.7) 334 (61.1) 593 (53.4) 1349 (58.2)
 Fall 99 (15.0) 78 (14.3) 147 (13.2) 324 (14.0)
 Stumble 86 (13.0) 83 (15.2) 219 (19.7) 388 (16.7)
 Blow to head 32 (4.8) 29 (5.3) 113 (10.2) 174 (7.5)
 Others 23 (3.5) 23 (4.2) 38 (3.4) 84 (3.6)
Pupillary reactions*
 Both reacting 387 (58.5) 528 (96.5) 1110 (100) 2025 (87.3)
 One reacting 195 (29.5) 19 (3.5) 0 (0) 214 (9.2)
 None reacting 80 (12.1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 80 (3.4)
Type of injury
 SDH* 263 (39.7) 154 (28.2) 231 (20.8) 648 (27.9)
 EDH 184 (27.8) 152 (27.8) 304 (27.4) 640 (27.6)
 IPH* 526 (79.5) 435 (79.5) 610 (55.0) 1571 (67.7)
 tSAH* 405 (61.2) 311 (56.9) 521 (46.9) 1237 (53.3)
 DAI* 60 (9.1) 11 (2.0) 3 (0.3) 74 (3.2)
 Skull fracture* 88 (13.3) 110 (20.1) 265 (23.9) 463 (20.0)
INR* 1.08 (1.02-1.16) 1.05 (1.00–1.12) 1.03 (0.99–1.08) 1.05 (1.00–1.12)
INR > 1.25* 76 (11.5) 27 (4.9) 31 (2.8) 134 (5.8)
PT(s)* 12.4 (11.8-13.4) 12.0 (11.4–12.8) 11.8 (11.2–12.3) 12.0 (11.3–12.8)
PT > 14 s* 100 (15.1) 36 (6.6) 51 (4.6) 187 (8.1)
APTT(s)* 26.1 (23.5–29.8) 25.0 (22.0–28.8) 24.7 (22.0–27.5) 25.0 (22.4–28.5)
APTT > 36 s* 64 (9.7) 24 (4.4) 43 (3.9) 131 (5.6)
FIB(g/L)* 2.1 (1.5–3.1) 2.3 (1.8–3.1) 2.5 (1.9–3.1) 2.3 (1.8–3.1)
FIB < 1.5 g/L* 174 (26.3) 82 (15.0) 98 (8.8) 354 (15.3)
D-dimer (mg/L)* 2.856 (0.840–7.080) 2.101 (0.852–5.174) 0.879 (0.300–2.451) 1.552 (0.453–4.298)
D-dimer <1 mg/L* 186 (28.1) 154 (28.2) 591 (53.2) 931 (40.1)
D-dimer 1–5 mg/L 238 (36.0) 249 (45.5) 388 (35.0) 875 (37.7)
D-dimer >5 mg/L 238 (36.0) 144 (26.3) 131 (11.8) 513 (22.1)
PLT(×109/L)* 158 (115–204) 167 (129-210) 178 (147–213) 171 (134–210)
PLT < 100 × 109/L* 115 (17.4) 63 (11.5) 69 (6.2) 247 (10.7)
Coagulopathy* 201 (30.4) 105 (19.2) 126 (11.4) 432 (18.6)
Hb(g/L)* 125 (108–141) 134 (117-146) 135 (123–147) 133 (117–145)
HCT(%)* 37.1(32.2-40.9) 38.8 (34.5–42.1) 39.5 (36.3–42.7) 38.7 (34.6–42.1)
Glucose(mmol/L)* 8.6 (7.3–10.4) 7.7 (6.7–9.2) 6.8 (6.0–8.0) 7.5 (6.4–9.0)
ICP monitoring* 447 (67.5) 233 (42.6) 80 (7.2) 760 (32.8)
Craniectomy* 365 (55.1) 136 (24.9) 39 (3.5) 540 (23.3)
Mortality* 131 (19.8) 27 (4.9) 16 (1.4) 174 (7.5)
LOS* 18 (11-28) 15 (10-22) 9 (6–14) 13 (8–20)
  1. The univariate analyses of categorical data were performed with a chi-square test. Normally distributed variables were compared using ANOVA, whereas nonnormally distributed variables were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test
  2. *P < 0.05