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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service has a beneficial impact on the incidence of prehospital hypoxia and secured airways on patients with severe traumatic brain injury

  Period 1: EMS   Period 2: HEMS   
n = 181   n = 85   p-value
Age, years (Median, Q1-Q3) 54 33–69 53 23–74 0.479
Gender, male (n, %) 127 70 58 68 0.820
Mechanism of injury (n, %)      0.288
 Fall from ground level   79 43 32 38  
 Traffic accident   41 23 29 34  
 Fall from a height (> 2 m)   25 14 9 11  
 Violence   14 8 6 7  
 Other   4 2 4 5  
 Unknown   18 10 5 6  
Primary GCS (Median, Q1-Q3) 5 3–7 5 3–7 0.956
Primary vital parameters (n/total, %)      
 Hypoxia   32/170 19 18/84 21 0.369
 Hypotension   7/174 4 4/84 5 0.514
Airway secured (n, %) 29 16 81 95 < 0.001
 Prehospital decision not to treat   2 2  
Vital parameters on arrival at the ED (n/total, %)      
 Hypoxia   18/173 10 2/84 2 0.024
 Hypotension   7/179 4 4/85 5 0.750
Mission related times, minutes (Median, Range)      
 From dispatch to arrival on-scene       
 1st EMS Unit on-scene   8 0–37 12 4–41 0.006
 HEMS   23 6–85  
 Total mission time   54 18–180 82 30–201 < 0.001