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Table 4 Patients characteristics depending on their survival status

From: Management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in emergency departments, from bleeding symptoms to diagnosis: a prospective, multicenter, observational study

  Survivors n = 172a Dead n = 21a P value
Age (median [Q1–Q3])b 66.5 [49–81] 66 [57–83] 0.46
Sex (men; n, %) 91 (53) 13 (62) 0.49
Initial symptoms suggesting UGB, n (%) Hematemesis 90 (52) 13 (62) 0.87
Melena 67 (39) 8 (38)
Hematochezia 8 (5) 0 (0)
Other 7 (4) 0 (0)
Medical history and medication, n (%)c n = 144 n = 18  
 Known cirrhosis 28 (19) 7 (39) 0.071
 Known ulcer 35 (24) 3 (17) 0.57
 Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs 54 (38) 8 (44) 0.61
 Antithrombotic agents 58 (40) 4 (22) 0.20
 Comorbidity 12 (8) 0 (0) 0.36
Exteriorized bleeding in the ED, n (%)d 85 (50) 16 (76) 0.035
Clinical features of severity, n (%)e n = 167 n = 20  
 Heart rate > 100 bpm 39 (23) 8 (40) 0.11
 Systolic arterial pressure < 90 mmHg 26 (16) 9 (45) 0.004
 Marbling 5 (3) 3 (15) 0.042
 Altered mental status 4 (2) 5 (25) 0.0008
Hemoglobin level n (%)f < 7 g/dL 34 (20) 5 (24) 0.55
Upper endoscopy in ED, n (%)g 39 (25) 5 (31) 0.57
 Hemostatic procedureh 11 (7) 1 (7) 1.00
Treatments in ED, n (%) n = 172 n = 21  
 Nasogastric tube 18 (10) 1 (5) 0.70
 Fluid administration 58 (34) 8 (38) 0.81
 Transfusion 60 (35) 12 (57) 0.057
 Proton pump inhibitors 125 (73) 14 (67) 0.61
 Vasopressors 25 (15) 10 (48) 0.0009
 Catecholamines 1 (1) 3 (14) 0.004
 Antibioticsg (excluding erythromycin) 7 (5) 1 (6) 0.56
 Vitamin K antagonist reversal 16 (9) 3 (14) 0.44
 Erythromycin 15 (9) 2 (10) 1.00
Final diagnosis, n (%)i (hospitalized patients) Ulcer 41 (29) 3 (19) 0.31
Gastritis 15 (11) 1 (6)
Variceal bleeding 23 (17) 7 (44)
Esophagitis 12 (9) 0 (0)
Mallory-Weiss tear 7 (5) 0 (0)
Cancer 10 (7) 2 (13)
Lower GI bleeding 8 (6) 1 (6)
None 23 (17) 2 (13)
  1. a1 missing data
  2. bfor 192 of 193 patients
  3. cfor 162 of 193 patients
  4. d for 191 of 193 patients
  5. efor 187 of 193 patients
  6. ffor 188 of 193 patients
  7. gfor 169 of 193 patients
  8. hfor 167 of 193 patients
  9. ifor 155 of 193 patients