Skip to main content

Table 1 General characteristics and treatments of patients presenting an upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB)

From: Management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in emergency departments, from bleeding symptoms to diagnosis: a prospective, multicenter, observational study

  Arrival at the ED
n = 170
Pre-hospital management
n = 24
Total
n = 194
P value
Age (median [Q1–Q3])a 66 [49–82] 71 [57.5–75.5] 66 [51–81] 0.71
Sex (men; n, %) 88 (52) 17 (71) 105 (54) 0.085
Initial symptoms suggesting UGB, n (%) Hematemesis 87 (51) 17 (71) 104 (54) 0.096
Melena 70 (41) 5 (21) 75 (39)
Hematochezia 6 (4) 2 (8) 8 (4)
Other 7 (4) 0 (0) 7 (4)
Medical history and medication, n (%)b n = 143 n = 20 n = 163  
 Known cirrhosis 31 (22) 4 (20) 35 (21) 1.
 Known ulcer 33 (23) 5 (25) 38 (23) 0.78
 Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs 10 (7) 2 (10) 12 (7) 0.64
 Antithrombotic agents 54 (38) 8 (40) 62 (38) 1.
 Comorbidity 57 (40) 5 (25) 62 (38) 0.25
Exteriorized bleeding in the ED, n (%)c 86 (51) 16 (67) 102 (53) 0.19
Clinical features of severity, n (%)d n = 166 n = 22 n = 188  
 Heart rate > 100 bpm 36 (22) 12 (55) 48 (26) 0.003
 Systolic arterial pressure < 90 mmHg 27 (16) 8 (36) 35 (19) 0.037
 Marbling 5 (3) 3 (14) 8 (4) 0.053
 Altered mental status 5 (3) 4 (18) 9 (5) 0.012
Hemoglobin level, n (%)e < 7 g/dL 34 (20) 5 (24) 39 (21) 0.77
Treatments in ED, n (%) n = 170 n = 24 n = 194  
 Nasogastric tube 15 (9) 4 (17) 19 (10) 0.26
 Fluid administration 55 (32) 12 (50) 67 (35) 0.11
 Transfusion 71 (42) 1 (4) 72 (37) 0.0002
 Proton pump inhibitors 132 (78) 8 (33) 140 (72) < 0.0001
 Vasopressors 33 (19) 3 (13) 36 (19) 0.58
 Catecholamines 2 (1) 2 (8) 4 (2) 0.075
 Antibioticsf (excluding erythromycin) 8 (5) --- --- ---
 Vitamin K antagonist reversal 18 (11) 1 (4) 19 (10) 0.048
 Erythromycin 16 (9) 1 (4) 17 (9) 0.70
  1. afor 193 of 194 patients
  2. bfor 163 of 194 patients
  3. cfor 192 of 194 patients
  4. dfor 188 of 194 patients
  5. efor 189 of 194 patients
  6. ffor 170 of 194 patients