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Table 1 Characteristics of the whole study population and according to their coagulation status on admission. Normal coagulation status was defined by a laboratory INR (lab-INR) < 1.2, moderate trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) by 1.2 ≤ lab-INR <1.5, and severe TIC by a lab-INR ≥ 1.5

From: Performance of point-of-care international normalized ratio measurement to diagnose trauma-induced coagulopathy

Variables Lab-INR < 1.2
n = 46 patients
Lab-INR [1.2–1.5]
n = 35 patients
Lab-INR ≥ 1.5
n = 17 patients
Total population
N = 98 patients
Age, years 42 [30–55] 41 [22–55] 44 [35–48] 42 [27–55]
Male, n (%) 41(89) 34 (97) 17 (100) 92
Blunt trauma, n (%) 40 (87) 33 (94) 13 (76) 86
Patients with pre-hospital fluid therapy > 20 ml/kg, n (%) 24 (52) 18 (51) 11 (65) 53
Patients with pre-hospital RBC transfusion, n (%) 1 (2) 2 (6) 3 (18) 6
Patients with pre-hospital mechanical ventilation, n (%) 10 (22) 17 (49) 11 (65) 38
First recorded pre-hospital pulse oximetry (SpO2), % 96 [92–98] 94 [87–97] 48 [0–96] 96 [89–98]
 Patients with first recorded SpO2 ≤ 92%, n (%) 9 (20) 10 (29) 3 (18) 22
Vital variables on admission
 Heart rate, Beats/min 80 [70–105] 93 [70–110] 95 [75–100] 89 [10–105]
 Systolic arterial blood pressure, mmHg 120 [110–140] 120 [110–135] 90 [75–110] 120 [103–140]
 SBP ≤ 90 mmHg, n (%) 4 (9) 4 (11) 11 (65) 19
 Glasgow Coma Scale before sedation 15 [12–15] 11 [6–15] 3 [3–14] 14 [6–15]
Patients with GCS < 13, n (%) 12 (26) 18 (51) 10 (59) 40
Patients treated with tranexamic acid, n (%) 12 8 12 32
Patients with vasopressor on admission, n (%) 20 (43) 18 (51) 16 (94) 54
Positive Focused Assessment Sonography for Trauma, n (%) 12 (26) 15 (43) 10 (59) 37
POC INR on admission 1.0 [1.0–1.1] 1.1 [1.1–1.2] 1.3 [1.2–1.4] 1.1 [1.0–1.2]
Laboratory coagulation variables on admission
 Prothrombin time (PT), % 92 [87–100] 72 [70–77] 45 [40–53] 79 [70–92]
 INR 1.1 [1.0–1.1] 1.2 [1.2–1.3] 1.8 [1.6–2.0] 1.2 [1.1–1.3]
 Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), sec 28.8 [27.2–31.4] 30.8 [29.8–33.7] 50.5 [37.1–57.5] 30.8 [28.6–35.4]
 Fibrinogen concentration, g/L 2.7 [2.4–3.0] 2.2 [2.0–2.6] 1.4 [1.0–1.6] 2.3 [2–2.8]
Serum lactate concentration on admission, g/L 1.7 [1.0–2.7] 2.0 [1.3–3.7] 5.7 [3.5–9.1] 2.2 [1.4–4.3]
Patients with RBC transfusion within 24 h, n (%) 3 (7) 5 (14) 12 (71) 20
Patients with FFP transfusion within 24 h, n (%) 1 (2) 3 (9) 11 (65) 15
Injury Severity Score (ISS) 25 [14–29] 25 [13–38] 34 [25–43] 25 [16–34]
Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) at day 1 3 [0–5] 5 [0–7] 8 [5–10] 4 [0–7]
Length of stay in ICU. days 5 [2–10] 8 [3–14] 1 [1–10] 5 [1–12]
In-hospital mortality. n (%) 3 (7) 5 (14) 8 (47) 16
  1. Data are median (25th-75th percentiles). FFP fresh frozen plasma, ICU intensive care unit, ISS Injury Severity Score, RBC red blood cell