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Table 3 Main characteristics of clinical studies

From: The haemodynamic dilemma in emergency care: Is fluid responsiveness the answer? A systematic review

Author Participants Intervention Control Primary outcome
Inclusion criteria n SOFA Basline MAP Baseline lactate Dynamic test Monitor Parameter measured Cutoff Treatment
Kuan35 Age ≥21, two SIRS criteria, suspected infection and lactate ≥ 3 mmol/L 122 3.4 ± 2.6* 88 ± 18* 4.8 ± 2* PLR Bioreactance ∆SVI 10% 500 mL bolus Standard care (target MAP > =65) Rate of lactate clearance >20% at 3 h
20% 1 L bolus
Hou36 Age ≥18, two SIRS criteria, lactate ≥2 mmol/L and < 4 mmol/L and 4 h from ED presentation 64 1.1 ± 1.5* 92* 2.6 ± 0.4* Fluid bolus (5 ml/kg over 10 min) Bioreactance ∆SV (within 5 min of the fluid bolus) 10% 1 L infusion Standard care Worsening SOFA score by > =1 point over the first 72 h
Coen37 Age ≥18, Septic shock or Lactate >4 mmol/L 51 7.1 ± 2.9 60 ± 13 4.6 ± 3.3 Spontaneous breathing Ultrasound Caval index 30% 500 mL bolus N/A N/A
  1. *Combined from treatment and control groups estimates
  2. SIRS, systemic inflammatory response syndrome; SOFA, sequential organ failure assessment; MAP, mean arterial pressure; PLR, passive leg raise; SVI, stroke volume index; SV, stroke volume