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Table 3 Clinical characteristics of acute recreational drug intoxications

From: Presentations to an urban emergency department in Bern, Switzerland associated with acute recreational drug toxicity

  Number of cases, N = 503 (%)
Cardiovascular
 Chest pain 34 (7)
 Palpitations 41 (8)
 Dyspnea 25 (5)
 Hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥180 mmHg) 14 (3)
 Hypotension (systolic blood pressure ≤90 mmHg) 18 (4)
 Tachycardia (>100 beats per minute) 144 (29)
 Myocardial infarction 3 (<1)
 Arrhythmias 5 (1)
Psychiatric
 Anxiety, nervousness, and/or fear 121 (24)
 Psychosis 71 (14)
 Hallucinations 54 (11)
 Agitation and/or aggression 179 (36)
 Panic attack 7 (1)
 Insomnia 18 (4)
 Suicidal ideation 14 (3)
Neurological
 Loss of consciousness (GCS < 8) on presentation or pre-hospital 107 (21)
 Impaired consciousness (GCS <15) on presentation or pre-hospital 291 (58)
 Vertigo and/or dizziness 39 (8)
 Headache 24 (5)
 Paraesthesias 17 (3)
 Seizure 26 (5)
 Tremor 22 (4)
 Amnesia 33 (7)
 Other neurological symptoms 36 (7)
 Miosis 87 (17)
 Mydriasis 74 (15)
 Respiratory depression 69 (14)
 Intracranial haemorrhage 2 (<1)
 Miscellaneous  
 Hyperventilation 22 (4)
 Nausea and/or vomiting 61 (12)
 Sweating 19 (4)
 Malaise 13 (3)
 Abdominal pain 14 (3)
 Hyperthermia (≥39.0 °C) 3 (<1)
 Hypothermia (<35.0 °C) 10 (2)
 Muscle cramps 20 (4)
 Injuries (e.g., fracture, wound) 23 (5)
 Acute kidney injury 2 (<1)
 Elevated creatine kinase (>250 U/L) 71 (14)
 Weakness, walking impairment 20 (4)