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Table 2 Mortality rates and involuntary early retirement in patients admitted to the stroke unit

From: The impact of a physician-staffed helicopter on outcome in patients admitted to a stroke unit: a prospective observational study

  Number of persons under observation in each group (GEMS/HEMS) Number of events Total PYR GEMS IR (per 100 PYR) HEMS IR (per 100 PYR) Unadjusted IRR (95% CI) P value Adjusteda, b, cIRR (95% CI) P value
Mortality rates ( n=1068) 916/152 258/46 2854/474 9.04 (7.94–10.14) 9.71 (6.91–12.52) 1.09 (0.79–1.49) 0.60 1.09 (0.79–1.49)a 0.60
 Patients diagnosed with stroke (n = 702) 587/115 187/40 1773/341 10.55 (9.04–12.06) 11.73 (8.10–15.37) 1.12 (0.79–1.57) 0.53 1.07 (0.75–1.53)b 0.72
 Patients who underwent thrombolysis (n = 388) 330/58 96/16 1031/189 9.31 (7.45–11.17) 8.48 (4.33–12.64) 0.92 (0.54–1.57) 0.92 0.89 (0.50–1.56)c 0.68
Mortality rates with transport distance >63 km ( n=539) 441/98 114/36 1375/289 8.29 (6.77–9.81) 12.44 (8.37–16.50) 1.49 (1.02–2.16) 0.04 1.36 (0.93–1.98)a 0.11
 Patients diagnosed with stroke (n = 362) 287/75 88/32 864/206 10.18 (8.06–12.31) 15.51 (10.13–20.88) 1.49 (0.99–2.24) 0.05 1.29 (0.84–1.99)b 0.25
 Patients who underwent thrombolysis (n = 202) 167/35 43/12 541/113 7.95 (5.57–10.33) 10.64 (4.62–16.66) 1.33 (0.70–2.52) 0.39 1.03 (0.51–2.07)c 0.94
Mortality rates in directly referred patients
 Patients who underwent thrombolysis (n = 332) 277/55 79/16 871/174 9.07 (7.07–11.07) 9.19 (4.69–13.70) 1.02 (0.60–1.75) 0.94 0.97 (0.55–1.73)c 0.92
Involuntary early retirement
 Patients diagnosed with stroke (n = 101) 89/12 20/3 287/40 6.97 (3.92–10.03) 7.58 (0.00–16.16) 1.12 (0.33–3.77) 0.85 1.19 (0.27–5.26)b 0.81
 Directly referred patients who underwent thrombolysis (n = 44) 37/7 8/0 123/26 6.48 (1.99–10.98) 0.00 (−)
  1. GEMS ground emergency medical services, HEMS helicopter emergency medical services, PYR person-years at risk, IR incidence rate, IRR incidence rate ratio, CI confidence interval, NIHSS National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. Co-morbidity was defined as having at least one of the following conditions: diabetes, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, previous myocardial infarction, previous stroke
  2. aAdjusted for sex (male/female) and age (quadratic)
  3. bAdjusted for sex (male/female), age (quadratic), and co-morbidity (yes/no)
  4. cAdjusted for sex (male/female), age (quadratic), co-morbidity (yes/no), and NIHSS (continuous)