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Table 2 Risk factors of fentanyl non-treatment stratified by sex, comorbidity and age

From: Prehospital intravenous fentanyl to patients with hip fracture: an observational cohort study of risk factors for analgesic non-treatment

  Male Female CCI score 0 CCI score > 1 Age < 85 years Age > 85 years
Fentanyl adm./n (patients) Adjusted Relative Risk (95% CI)* Fentanyl adm./n (patients) Adjusted Relative Risk (95% CI)* Fentanyl adm./n (patients) Adjusted Relative Risk (95% CI)* Fentanyl adm./n (patients) Adjusted Relative Risk (95% CI)* Fentanyl adm./n (patients) Adjusted Relative Risk (95% CI)* Fentanyl adm./n (patients) Adjusted Relative Risk (95% CI)*
Housing, n = 1967
Own home 97/391 1 (reference) 309/937 1 (reference) 203/598 1 (reference) 202/730 1 (reference) 260/815 1 (reference) 145/513 1 (reference)
OHATI 22/69 1.36 (0.87-2.13) 51/141 1.28 (1.02-1.60) 29/71 1.41 (1.01-1.95) 44/139 1.27 (0.97-1.66) 35/91 1.26 (0.95-1.69) 38/119 1.26 (0.94-1.71)
Institution 25/136 1.10 (0.73-1.68) 35/293 0.58 (0.43-0.80) 17/140 0.55 (0.34-0.89) 43/289 0.80 (0.59-1.07) 25/163 0.67 (0.46-0.97) 35/266 0.71 (0.51-0.99)
BMI, n = 2140
Normal 69/303 1 (reference) 215/748 1 (reference) 139/454 1 (reference) 34/120 1 (reference) 164/545 1 (reference) 120/506 1 (reference)
Underweight 10/27 1.03 (0.50-2.12) 41/164 0.96 (0.73-1.26) 17/71 0.94 (0.61-1.45) 145/597 1.02 (0.74-1.41) 23/84 0.91 (0.64-1.31) 28/107 1.19 (0.82-1.74)
Overweight 44/198 0.81 (0.56-1.17) 101/323 1.13 (0.94-1.35) 67/206 1.07 (0.85-1.36) 78/315 1.00 (0.79-1.26) 93/308 0.99 (0.80-1.21) 52/213 1.13 (0.86-1.50)
Obesea 29/124 1.11 (0.70-1.76) 75/253 0.98 (0.74-1.29) 47/144 1.00 (0.73-.138) 57/233 1.06 (0.76-1.48) 71/228 0.98 (0.75-1.30) 33/149 1.21 (0.78-1.87)
Fracture displacement, n = 1981
Yes 126/519 1 (reference) 347/1198 1 (reference) 221/705 1 (reference) 252/1012 1 (reference) 283/924 1 (reference) 190/793 1 (reference)
No 16/75 0.99 (0.57-1.74) 37/155 1.10 (0.83-1.44) 19/91 0.88 (0.59-1.32) 34/139 1.19 (0.87-1.63) 34/127 1.12 (0.83-1.52) 19/103 0.99 (0.63-1.56)
Unspecified 2/10 0.96 (0.27-3.21) 11/24 1.43 (0.92-2.21) 8/17 1.33 (0.81-2.17) 5/17 1.29 (0.53-3.16) 7/20 1.01 (0.57-1.77) 6/14 1.87 (0.95-3.68)
Type of fracture
Subtrochanteric 22/60 1 (reference) 0.76 49/122 1 (reference) 33/66 1 (reference) 38/116 1 (reference) 44/102 1 (reference) 27/80 1 (reference)
Pertrochanteric 67/276 (0.49-1.16) 190/596 0.93 (0.73-1.20) 114/353 0.71 (0.52-0.96) 143/519 0.79 (0.58-1.07) 134/444 0.81 (0.61-1.06) 123/428 0.89 (0.62-1.28)
Medial 63/316 0.70 (0.45-1.09) 49/122 0.77 (0.60-0.99) 123/456 0.84 (0.62-1.14) 133/630 0.92 (0.68-1.25) 173/619 0.75 (0.57-0.99) 83/467 0.66 (0.45-0.96)
Prior consultation with GP
No 116/302 1 (reference) 366/1134 1 (reference) 234/678 1 (reference) 259/944 1 (reference) 303/923 1 (reference) 190/699 1 (reference)
Yes 8/60 0.56 (0.33-0.92) 66/354 0.91 (0.73-1.14) 36/197 0.75 (0.54-1.04) 55/321 0.87 (0.67-1.14) 48/242 0.83 (0.63-1.10) 43/276 0.71 (0.51-0.98)
EMCC triage level
A (highest) 17/45 1 (reference) 39/88 1 (reference) 32/68 1 (reference) 23/77 1 (reference) 42/106 1 (reference) 13/39 1 (reference)
B 87/202 1.31 (0.84-2.06) 317/897 0.88 (0.70-1.11) 189/516 0.99 (0.76-1.28) 221/730 1.08 (0.75-1.55) 243/679 1.00 (0.77-1.29) 167/567 0.97 (0.66-1.45)
C 10/72 0.68 (0.36-1.27) 37/344 0.34 (0.23-0.50) 19/190 0.32 (0.19-0.55) 37/314 0.55 (0.34-0.88) 32/241 0.47 (0.31-0.70) 24/263 0.40 (0.23-0.72)
Time with ambulance personnelb, minutes
<20 2/29 0.07 (0.01-0.51) 0/125 - 3/67 0.04 (0.01-0.30) 0/107 - 3/88 0.03 (0.01-0.21) 0/86 -
20-29 8/47 0.28 (0.14-0.54) 30/217 0.26 (0.18-0.39) 20/126 0.31 (0.20-0.49) 18/180 0.23 (0.14-0.38) 27/162 0.32 (0.22-0.48) 11/144 0.19 (0.10-0.35)
30-39 15/52 0.62 (0.38-1.00) 55/267 0.42 (0.32-0.55) 39/146 0.53 (0.39-0.73) 37/216 0.38 (0.26-0.54) 44/183 0.46 (0.34-0.62) 32/179 0.45 (0.31-0.65)
40-49 23/57 0.83 (0.56-1.23) 78/255 0.59 (0.47-0.74) 49/161 0.64 (0.48-0.85) 64/216 0.65 (0.50-0.85) 65/196 0.63 (0.49-0.81) 48/181 0.64 (0.47-0.89)
50-59 24/62 0.78 (0.51-1.19) 103/236 0.82 (0.67-0.99) 59/143 0.81 (0.62-1.04) 69/194 0.82 (0.64-1.06) 74/189 0.72 (0.58-0.91) 54/148 0.96 (0.73-1.28)
>60 41/71 1 (reference) 121/218 1 (reference) 68/124 1 (reference) 90/198 1 (reference) 100/198 1 (reference) 58/124 1 (reference)
Yearc
2011 20/106 1 (reference) 51/254 1 (reference) 36/163 1 (reference) 35/197 1 (reference) 47/211 1 (reference) 24/149 1 (reference)
2012 61/240 1.44 (0.85-2.44) 167/533 1.47 (1.10-1.96) 106/307 1.60 (1.12-2.31) 122/466 1.24 (0.87-1.78) 145/427 1.43 (1.07-1.92) 83/346 1.47 (0.89-2.43)
2013 51/211 1.23 (0.72-2.11) 139/455 1.50 (1.12-2.01) 81/257 1.49 (1.02-2.17) 109/409 1.30 (0.91-1.87) 109/350 1.33 (0.98-1.81) 81/316 1.61 (0.98-2.64)
2014 20/95 1.48 (0.79-2.76) 75/246 1.55 (1.13-2.13) 47/148 1.60 (1.06-2.41) 48/193 1.37 (0.91-2.04) 50/177 1.28 (0.90-1.81) 45/164 1.96 (1.16-3.31)
Sex
Female - - - - 210/666 1 (reference) 222/822 1 (reference) 260/764 1 (reference) 172/724 1 (reference)
Male      60/209 0.83 (0.64-1.07) 92/443 0.71 (0.56-0.90) 91/401 0.70 (0.56-0.87) 61/251 0.89 (0.67-1.19)
CCI score
0 60/209 1 (reference) 210/666 1 (reference) - - - - 159/433 1 (reference) 111/442 1 (reference)
1 31/155 0.63 (0.41-0.97) 93/373 0.82 (0.66-1.02)      70/287 0.69 (0.54-0.90) 54/241 0.87 (0.65-1.16)
2 29/121 0.80 (0.54-1.19) 56/219 0.82 (0.63-1.07)      52/204 0.79 (0.61-1.04) 33/136 0.94 (0.65-1.37)
3+ 32/167 0.66 (0.44-1.00) 73/230 1.00 (0.81-1.24)      70/204 0.87 (0.69-1.10) 35/156 0.88 (0.63-1.24)
Age, years
65-74 37/144 1 (reference) 87/218 1 (reference) 67/155 1 (reference) 57/207 1 (reference) - - - -
75-79 26/108 0.85 (0.53-1.38) 78/230 0.92 (0.72-1.18) 37/115 0.71 (0.50-1.01) 67/223 1.08 (0.80-1.45)     
80-84 28/149 0.64 (0.40-1.04) 95/316 0.84 (0.66-1.06) 55/163 0.78 (0.58-1.05) 68/302 0.78 (0.56-1.08)     
85-89 45/158 0.94 (0.63-1.40) 82/369 0.65 (0.50-0.84) 58/219 0.61 (0.45-0.84) 69/308 0.81 (0.59-1.12)     
>90 16/93 0.59 (0.32-1.11) 90/355 0.86 (0.68-1.09) 53/223 0.76 (0.57-1.01) 53/225 0.90 (0.65-1.28)     
  1. CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, OHATI own home affiliated to an institution, BMI Body Mass Index, GP general practitioner, EMCC Emergency Medical Communication Center
  2. *Mutually adjusted for the other variables in the table. Adjustments are categorical besides age (continuous) and time with ambulance (restricted cubic splines)
  3. aFour levels of body mass index were defined as < 18.5 (underweight), 18.5-24.9 (normal weight), 25-29.9 (overweight) and > 30.0 (obese)
  4. bDefined as the time from ambulance arrival on scene until hospital admission
  5. c2011 and 2014 contain patient information from 6-month periods