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Table 2 Patients classified by SI calculated at ED admission and the presence of TBI: demographics, injury mechanism and severities as well as outcome parameters. Continuous variables are presented as mean ± 95% confidence interval; categorical variables are presented as absolute number and percentage

From: Is the shock index based classification of hypovolemic shock applicable in multiple injured patients with severe traumatic brain injury?—an analysis of the TraumaRegister DGU®

  Class I Class II Class III Class IV
  SI <0.6 SI ≥0.6 to <1 SI ≥1 to <1.4 SI ≥ 1.4
  Non-TBI TBI Non-TBI TBI Non-TBI TBI Non-TBI TBI
Demographics         
n (total, %) 6949 (28.8) 5177 (30.9) 12,780 (53.0) 7861 (46.9) 2015 (8.4) 1741 (10.4) 800 (3.3) 839 (5.0)
Male (n, %) 5324 (77) 3691 (72) 9219 (72) 5678 (72) 1423 (71) 1255 (73) 592 (74) 613 (72)
Age (years; mean ± CI) 48.5 ± 0.5 55 ± 0.6 42 ± 0.3 47 ± 0.5 44 ± 0.8 46 ± 1.0 46 ± 1.3 45 ± 1.4
Blunt trauma (n, %) 6367 (96) 4877 (97) 11,405 (93.1) 7428 (97) 1765 (90) 1605 (95) 702 (91) 768 (94)
Injury Severity         
ISS (points; mean ± CI) 13.3 ± 0.2 24.9 ± 0.3 15.8 ± 0.2 28.4 ± 0.3 23.4 ± 0.6 36.2 ± 0.7 30.6 ± 1.0 43.0 ± 1.1
NISS (points; mean ± CI) 16.4 ± 0.2 33.6 ± 0.4 19.4 ± 0.2 35.7 ± 0.3 28.7 ± 0.6 42.9 ± 0.8 36.7 ± 1.1 49.0 ± 1.1
RISC (points; mean ± CI) 4.3 ± 0.2 23.7 ± 0.7 4.5 ± 0.2 26.4 ± 0.6 11.1 ± 0.8 38.3 ± 1.6 23.9 ± 1.9 52.1 ± 2.4
AIS Thorax ≥3 points (n; %) 2669 (38) 1461 (28) 5554 (44) 3182 (40) 1198 (60) 1021 (59) 541 (68) 585 (70)
AIS Abdomen ≥3 points (n; %) 674 (10) 179 (3) 1985 (15) 661 (8) 606 (30) 357 (21) 355 (44) 286 (34)
AIS Pelvis/Extremities ≥3 points (n; %) 1840 (27) 541 (10) 4554 (36) 1569 (20) 1045 (52) 657 (38) 513 (64) 410 (49)
Outcome         
Mortality (n; %) 154 (2.2) 1057 (20.4) 373 (2.9) 1523 (19.4) 204 (10.1) 637 (36.6) 196 (24.5) 433 (51.6)
Hospital LOS (days; mean ± CI) 16.6 ± 0.4 18.3 ± 0.5 20.4 ± 0.4 21.0 ± 0.5 30.8 ± 1.3 23.0 ± 1.2 31.7 ± 2.2 22.2 ± 1.9
ICU LOS (days; mean ± CI) 4.2 ± 0.2 9.7 ± 0.3 6.1 ± 0.2 11.8 ± 0.3 12.2 ± 0.7 14.7 ± 0.7 15.6 ± 1.2 14.6 ± 1.3
Ventilatior days (days; mean ± CI) 1.8 ± 0.1 6.4 ± 0.3 3.1 ± 0.1 8.1 ± 0.2 7.5 ± 0.6 14.8 ± 0.6 10.8 ± 1.0 11.5 ± 1.1
MOF (n; %) 220 (4) 676 (15) 670 (6) 1393 (20) 302 (17) 483 (32) 186 (28) 273 (41)
Sepsis (n; %) 176 (3) 345 (8) 515 (5) 680 (10) 226 (13) 214 (14) 143 (21) 119 (17)