Skip to main content

Table 3 Initial vital signs at emergency department in the unmatched and propensity score-matched groups

From: Outcomes after helicopter versus ground emergency medical services for major trauma--propensity score and instrumental variable analyses: a retrospective nationwide cohort study

  Unmatched groups Matched groups
HEMS GEMS SD, % HEMS GEMS SD, %
n = 4128 (%) n = 17158 (%) n = 3980 (%) n = 3980 (%)
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg
 0 272 (6.6) 1342 (7.8) -4.6 253 (6.4) 374 (9.4) -11.1
 1 to 89 522 (12.6) 1900 (9.4) 10.2 496 (12.5) 455 (11.4) 3.4
 90 to 109 552 (13.4) 2157 (10.7) 8.3 537 (13.5) 507 (12.7) 2.4
  ≥ 110 2725 (66.0) 14506 (71.9) -12.8 2642 (66.4) 2579 (64.8) 3.4
 missing 57 (1.4) 234 (1.2) 1.8 52 (1.3) 65 (1.6) -2.5
Heart rate, beats/min
 0 272 (6.6) 1342 (7.8) -4.6 253 (6.4) 374 (9.4) -11.1
 1 to 59 263 (6.4) 1063 (6.2) 0.8 255 (6.4) 279 (7.0) -2.4
 60 to 99 2461 (59.6) 10350 (60.3) -1.4 2384 (59.9) 2320 (58.3) 3.3
  ≥ 100 1065 (25.8) 3990 (23.3) 5.8 1024 (25.7) 892 (22.4) 7.7
 missing 67 (1.6) 413 (2.4) -5.7 64 (1.6) 115 (2.9) -8.8
Respiratory rate, breaths/min
 0 272 (6.6) 1342 (7.8) -4.6 253 (6.4) 374 (9.4) -11.1
 1 to 9, > 29 719 (17.4) 2708 (15.8) 4.3 689 (17.3) 697 (17.5) -0.5
 10 to 29 2881 (69.8) 11725 (68.3) 3.2 2787 (70.0) 2554 (64.2) 12.4
 missing 256 (6.2) 1383 (8.1) -7.4 251 (6.3) 355 (8.9) -9.8
Japan Coma Scale
 Grade 0 (alert) 1033 (25.0) 4524 (26.4) -3.2 1012 (25.4) 1072 (26.9) -3.4
 Grade 1 (delirium) 806 (19.5) 3784 (22.1) -6.4 775 (19.5) 775 (19.5) 0.0
 Grade 2 (sommolence) 510 (12.4) 1920 (11.2) 3.7 489 (12.3) 418 (10.5) 5.7
 Grade 3 (coma) 1022 (24.8) 3559 (20.7) 9.8 992 (24.9) 840 (21.1) 9.0
 missing 757 (18.3) 3371 (19.6) -3.3 712 (17.9) 875 (22.0) -10.3
Glasgow Coma Scale
14 2176 (52.7) 9283 (54.1) -2.8 2101 (52.8) 2169 (54.5) -3.4
 9 to 13 797 (19.3) 3419 (19.9) -1.5 765 (19.2) 742 (18.6) 1.5
8 1088 (26.4) 3771 (22.0) 10.3 1049 (26.4) 884 (22.2) 9.8
 missing 67 (1.6) 685 (4.0) -14.6 65 (1.6) 185 (4.6) -17.4
Body temperature, °C
  < 35 344 (8.3) 1273 (7.4) 3.3 328 (8.2) 278 (7.0) 4.5
35 2845 (68.9) 12985 (75.7) -15.2 2769 (69.6) 2917 (73.3) -8.2
 missing 939 (22.7) 2900 (16.9) 14.6 883 (22.2) 785 (19.7) 6.1
  1. Total may not become 100% due to rounding off
  2. HEMS helicopter emergency medical services, GEMS ground emergency medical services, SD standardized difference