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Table 3 Breathing movements (Δ Differences between injured vs. non-injured side) and range of motion

From: Physical function and pain after surgical or conservative management of multiple rib fractures – a follow-up study

   Stabilizing surgery Conservatively treated p-value
Breathing movements Δ Upper thorax during rest, mm 0.15 (1.27) 0.10 (0.42) 0.856
Δ Lower thorax during rest, mm 0.13 (1.02) −0.02 (0.36) 0.451
Δ Abdominally during rest, mm −0.61 (1.90) −0.01 (0.77) 0.136
Δ Upper thorax during maximal breathing movements, mm −0.39 (4.69) −0.11 (1.91) 0.606
Δ Lower thorax during maximal breathing movements, mm 4.98 (4.67) −1.19 (2.04) 0.002
Δ Abdominally during maximal breathing movements, mm −0.41 (4.67) −0.46 (2.58) 0.398
Thorax excursion Upper level, cm 5.2 (2.1) 3.7 (1.8) 0.005
Lower level, cm 4.3 (1.92) 4.3 (2.3) 0.944
Range of motion in the thorax Thoracic flexion, cm 4.0 (1.8) 2.4 (0.8) <0.001
Thoracic extension, cm 2.5 (1.1) 1.3 (0.5) <0.001
Lateral flexion towards the injured side, cm 15.9 (5.0) 14.8 (5.6) 0.494
Lateral flexion away from the injured side, cm 15.4 (5.1) 14.8 (5.8) 0.743
Range of motion in the shoulder Flexion injured side, ° 154 (31) 158 (37) 0.747
Flexion non-injured side, ° 154 (38) 163 (27) 0.341
Abduction, injured side, ° 159 (27) 161 (34) 0.846
Abduction, non-injured side, ° 156 (37) 165 (30) 0.373
  1. Mean ± SD