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Table 2 Initial prehospital vital signs and treatment stratified according to the presence or absence of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema

From: Prehospital lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema: a pilot study

Initial prehospital vital signs CPO presenta (n = 18) CPO absentb (n = 22)
Respiratory rate - breaths per minute
 - Median (IQRc) 36 (32–42) 32 (30–36)
 - Range 24–50 28–42
Saturation prior to oxygen treatment - %
 - Median (IQRc) 80 (71–91) 85 (64–91)
 - Range 54–98 50–98
Systolic blood pressure - mmHg
 - Median (IQRc) 161 (130–210) 155 (120–177)
 - Range 84–230 80–208
Diastolic blood pressure - mmHg
 - Median (IQRc) 110 (80–121) 80 (66–100)
 - Range 63–130 48–124
Heart rate – beats per minute
 - Median (IQRc) 120 (112–150) 115 (91–134)
 - Range 83–180 28–143
Glasgow Coma Score
 - Median (IQRc) 15 (15–15) 15 (15–15)
 - Range 15 13–15
Prehospital treatment administered – no. (%) (95 % CI)
 Nitroglycerin 15 (83.3 %) 3 (13.6 %)
(64.3–100 %) (0–29.2 %)
 Diuretic 16 (88.9 %) 7 (31.8 %)
(72.8–100) (10.7–53.0 %)
 Opioid 5 (27.8 %) 3 (13.6 %)
(4.9–50.7 %) (0–29.2 %)
 Amiodarone 2 (11.1 %) 0 (0 %)
(0–27.2 %) (0–13.6 %)
 Acetylsalicylic acid 4 (22.2 %) 0 (0 %)
(0.9–43.5 %) (0–13.6 %)
 Low molecular weight heparin 1 (5.6 %) 0 (0 %)
(0–17.3 %) (0–13.6 %)
 Bronchodilator 3 (16.7 %) 17 (77.3 %)
(0–35.7 %) (58.3–96.2 %)
 Systemic steroid 2 (11.1 %) 14 (63.4 %)
(0–27.2 %) (41.8–85.5 %)
 Fluid resuscitation 1 (5.6 %) 2 (9.1 %)
(0–17.3 %) (0–22.1 %)
  1. aResult of audit was presence of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema
  2. bResult of audit was absence of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema
  3. cInterquartile range (IQR) expressed as the 25 and 75th