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Table 2 Factors associated with hospitalisation—logistic regression analysisa

From: Outpatient treatment of acute poisoning by substances of abuse: a prospective observational cohort study

  n (%) Hospitalised n (%) Crude Adjusted
  Odds ratio 95 % CI p Odds ratio 95 % CI p
Age
 26–50 yearsb 1207 (52) 245 (20)       
  ≤ 25 years 640 (27) 78 (12) 0.55 0.41–0.72 <0.001 0.75 0.53–1.0 0.090
  > 50 years 496 (21) 68 (14) 0.62 0.47–0.84 0.002 1.2 0.83–1.7 0.348
Gender
 Malesb 1600 (68) 288 (18)       
 Females 743 (32) 103 (14) 0.73 0.57–0.94 0.013 0.74 0.55–1.0 0.052
Main toxic agent
 Ethanolb 1291 (55) 103 (8)       
 Opioids 539 (23) 102 (19) 2.7 2.0–3.6 <0.001 1.7 1.1–2.5 0.014
 Benzodiazepines 194 (8) 65 (34) 5.8 4.1–8.3 <0.001 3.6 2.2–5.8 <0.001
 Central stimulants 132 (6) 42 (32) 5.4 3.5–8.2 <0.001 2.5 1.4–4.5 0.001
 GHB 105 (4) 60 (57) 15.4 9.9–23.8 <0.001 19.0 11.3–32.0 <0.001
 Other/Unknown 82 (3) 19 (23) 3.5 2.0–6.0 <0.001 2.1 1.1–4.2 0.026
Number of toxic agents    1.3 1.2–1.5 <0.001 0.89 0.75–1.1 0.204
Suicide attemptc 139 (6) 61 (44) 4.4 3.1–6.3 <0.001 6.9 4.2–11.4 <0.001
Treatment with naloxonec 198 (8) 48 (24) 1.7 1.2–2.4 0.003 1.1 0.72–1.8 0.581
Clinical observationsc
 Respiratory depressiond 287 (12) 86 (30) 2.5 1.9–3.3 <0.001 2.4 1.7–3.5 <0.001
 Respiratory rate > 20/min 304 (13) 61 (20) 1.3 0.96–1.8 0.091 1.2 0.79–1.7 0.469
 Heart rate ≥ 100/min 430 (18) 104 (24) 1.8 1.4–2.3 <0.001 1.7 1.2–2.4 0.002
 Temperature ≥ 39.0 °C 11 (<1) 8 (73) 13.6 3.6–51.4 <0.001 1.8 0.34–9.3 0.503
 Glucose ≤ 3.0 mmol/L 12 (1) 6 (50) 5.1 1.6–15.8 0.005 6.5 1.8–23.7 0.005
 Neurological signse 62 (3) 22 (35) 2.9 1.7–4.9 <0.001 3.9 2.1–7.3 <0.001
 Hallucinations 59 (3) 31 (53) 5.9 3.5–10.0 <0.001 9.6 5.0–18.5 <0.001
Chest painc 24 (1) 9 (38) 3.0 1.3–7.0 0.009 5.6 2.2–14.6 <0.001
Head injuryc 217 (9) 24 (11) 0.60 0.38–0.92 0.021 0.97 0.59–1.6 0.888
Seizuresc 42 (2) 17 (40) 3.5 1.9–6.6 <0.001 5.7 2.7–12.1 <0.001
Infectionc 64 (3) 31 (48) 5.0 3.0–8.3 <0.001 6.3 3.5–11.3 <0.001
Other complicationsc 145 (6) 58 (40) 3.7 2.6–5.3 <0.001 6.5 4.2–10.0 <0.001
Lowest GCS scoref
 15b 680 (29) 85 (13)       
 10–14 1316 (56) 208 (16) 1.3 1.0–1.7 0.048 2.0 1.4–2.8 <0.001
 8–9 223 (10) 49 (22) 2.0 1.3–2.9 0.001 3.0 1.8–4.9 <0.001
  ≤ 7 113 (5) 41 (36) 4.0 2.6–6.2 <0.001 6.5 3.7–11.6 <0.001
Total 2343 (100) 391 (17)       
  1. Adjusted odds ratios for significant associations are shown in bold types
  2. CI confidence interval, GCS Glasgow coma scale, GHB gamma-hydroxybutyrate
  3. a In the univariate analyses, the following variables were not significantly associated with hospitalisation (p ≥ 0.10): systolic blood pressure ≥180 (n = 12, 4 (33 %) admitted); systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 (n = 117, 21 (8 %) admitted); temperature ≤ 34.0 °C (n = 34, 8 (23 %) admitted); glucose ≥ 14.0 mmol/L (n = 19, 5 (26 %) admitted); track marks (n = 375, 60 (16 %) admitted); other injuries (n = 171, 29 (17 %) admitted); and breath analysis alcohol level (analysed in 805 (34 %) patients, median 190 mg/dL in hospitalised patients, 210 mg/dL in discharged patients)
  4. b Reference group
  5. c The reference groups are not suicide attempt/no treatment with naloxone/observation or complication not recorded (reference groups not shown)
  6. d Respiratory rate < 10/min, SpO2 < 90 %, or in need of respiratory support
  7. e Comprises nystagmus, inverted plantar reflex, asymmetric pupil reaction to light or asymmetric movement of limbs
  8. f Eleven cases missing