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Table 3 Risk factors for in-hospital mortality: univariate analysis. Data are presented as mean ± SD, median (IQR), and frequency (%)

From: Incidence and outcome of cardiac injury in patients with severe head trauma

  Non-survivors (n = 18) Survivors (n = 32) P value
Age 33.4 ± 12.7 26 ± 9.6 0.05
Male gender 29 (90.6 %) 16 (88.9 %) 1
APACHE II score 23.6 ± 4.4 16.8 ± 4.2 <0.001
GCS score 4.5 (4, 6) 7 (6, 7) <0.001
Abnormal Echocardiography 13 (40.6 %) 2 (11.1 %) 0.052
Abnormal ECG 24 (75 %) 11 (61.1 %) 0.073
Hypotension 15 (46.9 %) 1 (5.6 %) 0.004
Troponin Day 1 1.1 ± 2.3 0.09 ± 0.18 <0.001
Elevated Troponin by Day 1 22 (68.8 %) 5 (27.8 %) 0.008
NCIS 2 (1, 2) 0 (0,1) <0.001
NCIS > 1 18 (56.3 %) 1 (5.6 %) 0.001
  1. GCS: Glasgow coma scale, NCIS: neurogenic cardiac injury score