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Table 4 Resuscitation and processes of care from baseline to 72 h

From: Early goal-directed resuscitation for patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

   0–6 h 6–72 h 0–72 h
Author   EGDT Usual care P EGDT Usual care P EGDT Usual care P
Wang [45] Intravenous fluids (ml) 4895 ± 210a 2340 ± 95a 0.01 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Rivers [7] Intravenous fluids (ml) 4981 ± 2984a 3499 ± 2438a 0.001 8625 ± 5162a 10602 ± 6216a 0.01 13443 ± 6390a 13358 ± 7729a 0.73
  Vasopressor use 32/117 36/119 0.62 34/117 51/119 0.03 43/117 61/119 0.02
  Dobutamine use 16/117 1/119 0.001 17/117 10/119 0.14 18/117 11/119 0.15
  Blood transfusion 75/117 22/119 0.001 13/117 39/119 0.001 80/117 53/119 0.001
ProCESS [6] Intravenous fluids (ml) 2805 ± 1957a 2279 ± 1881a 0.0001 4458 ± 3878a 4354 ± 3882a 0.08 7253 ± 4605a 6633 ± 4560a 0.0001
  Vasopressor use 241/439 201/456 0.003 209/439 197/456 0.38 265/439 245/456 0.05
  Dobutamine use 35/439 4/456 0.0001 19/439 10/456 0.08 41/439 13/456 0.0001
  Blood transfusion 63/439 34/456 0.001 87/439 82/456 0.54 120/439 102/456 0.22
ARISE [30] Intravenous fluids (ml) 1964 ± 1415a 1713 ± 1401a 0.001 4274 ± 3071a 4382 ± 3136a 0.51 NA NA NA
  Vasopressor use 528/793 461/798 0.001 460/782 401/778 0.004 NA NA NA
  Dobutamine use 122/793 21/798 0.001 74/782 39/788 0.001 NA NA NA
  Blood transfusion 108/793 56/798 0.001 86/782 92/778 0.61 NA NA NA
ProMISe [31] Intravenous fluids (ml) 2226 ± 1443a 2022 ± 1271 NA 4215 ± 3068a 4366 ± 3114 NA 5946 ± 3740a 5844 ± 3651a NA
  Vasopressor use 332/623 291/625 NA 349/603 317/603 NA 377/623 344/625 NA
  Dobut mine use 113/623 24/625 NA 107/603 39/603 NA 139/623 44/625 NA
  Blood transfusion 55/623 24/625 NA 76/603 51/603 NA 107/623 65/625 NA
  1. NA no available, P P value
  2. amean ± standard deviation