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Table 1 Patient, mission and airway characteristics

From: Ease and difficulty of pre-hospital airway management in 425 paediatric patients treated by a helicopter emergency medical service: a retrospective analysis

  Primary mission Secondary mission
Total (n = 425) 225 200
Gender   
 Male 142 (63.1%) 115 (57.7%)
Age   
 median (IQR) 6.4 (2.4–12.7) 5 (1.7–10.5)
NACA   
 III 1 (0.4%) 1 (0.5%)
 IV 31 (13.8%) 75 (37.5%)
 V 116 (51.6%) 116 (58%)
 VI 43 (19.1%) 8 (4%)
 VII 34 (15.1%) 0
GCS   
 < 9 206 (91.5%) 184 (92%)
 > = 9 19 (8.5%) 16 (8%)
Trauma 151 (67.1%) 69 (34.5%)
 Craniofacial injury 117 (77.5%) 55 (79.7%)
 Other 34 (22.5%) 14 (20.3%)
Non-trauma 74 (32.9%) 131 (65.5%)
 Neurological 20 (27%) 40 (30.5%)
 Respiratory 37 (50%) 12 (9.2%)
 Circulatory 13 (17.6%) 53 (40.5%)
 Other 4 (5.4%) 26 (19.8%)
Airway (final)   
 NIV 4 (1.8%) 5 (2.5%)
 Tracheotomy (pre-existing) 3 (1.3%) 5 (2.5%)
 Orotracheal int. 212 (94.2%) 172 (86%)
 Nasotracheal int. 0 18 (9%)
 Laryngeal mask 2 (0.9%) 0
 Laryngeal tube 3 (1.3%) 0
 CICV 1 (0.4%) n/a
Neuromuscular blocking agents used (NACA III-V) 129/148 (87.2%) n/a
 Rocuronium 34 (26.4%)
 Suxamethonium 95 (73.6%)
Neuromuscular blocking agents used (NACA VI-VII) 11/77 (13.3%) n/a
 Rocuronium 6 (54.5%)
 Suxamethonium 5 (45.5%)
  1. Summary of primary and secondary mission characteristics. Percentages are in reference to the main group (primary/secondary) or the subgroup respectively. IQR interquartile range. NACA national advisory committee for aeronautics. GCS glasgow coma scale. NIV non-invasive ventilation. CICV cannot intubate, cannot ventilate