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Table 3 Associated injuries of the hospitalized trauma patients

From: Use of the reverse shock index for identifying high-risk patients in a five-level triage system

Variables RSI < 1 RSI  1 Odds ratio p
N = 348 N = 10466 (95 % CI)
Head trauma, n (%)     
 Cranial fracture 37 (10.6) 623 (6.0) 1.9 (1.32–2.67) <0.001
 Epidural hematoma (EDH) 22 (6.3) 401 (3.8) 1.7 (1.09–2.64) 0.018
 Subdural hematoma (SDH) 38 (10.9) 770 (7.4) 1.5 (1.09–2.18) 0.013
 Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) 51 (14.7) 869 (8.3) 1.9 (1.40–2.57) <0.001
 Intracerebral hematoma (ICH) 14 (4.0) 169 (1.6) 2.6 (1.47–4.45) 0.001
 Cervical vertebral fracture 11 (3.2) 91 (0.9) 3.7 (1.97–7.02) <0.001
Maxillofacial trauma, n (%)     
 Orbital fracture 3 (0.9) 226 (2.2) 0.4 (0.13–1.24) 0.098
 Nasal fracture 6 (1.7) 120 (1.1) 1.5 (0.66–3.46) 0.323
 Maxillary fracture 31 (8.9) 680 (6.5) 1.4 (0.97–2.05) 0.074
 Mandibular fracture 14 (4.0) 265 (2.5) 1.6 (0.93–2.79) 0.084
Thoracic trauma, n (%)     
 Rib fracture 56 (16.1) 833 (8.0) 2.2 (1.65–2.98) <0.001
 Sternal fracture 3 (0.9) 14 (0.1) 6.5 (1.86–22.69) 0.001
Hemothorax 20 (5.7) 150 (1.4) 4.2 (2.60–6.77) <0.001
 Pneumothorax 16 (4.6) 163 (1.6) 3.0 (1.80–5.15) <0.001
 Hemopneumothorax 30 (8.6) 125 (1.2) 7.8 (5.16–11.81) <0.001
 Lung contusion 15 (4.3) 111 (1.1) 4.2 (2.42–7.28) <0.001
 Thoracic vertebral fracture 14 (4.0) 93 (0.9) 4.7 (2.64–8.29) <0.001
Abdominal trauma, n (%)     
 Intra-abdominal injury 18 (5.2) 126 (1.2) 4.5 (2.70–7.42) <0.001
 Hepatic injury 42 (12.1) 182 (1.7) 7.8 (5.44–11.05) <0.001
 Splenic injury 26 (7.5) 87 (0.8) 9.6 (6.13–15.14) <0.001
 Retroperitoneal injury 10 (2.9) 12 (0.1) 25.8 (11.06–60.07) <0.001
 Renal injury 12 (3.4) 45 (0.4) 8.3 (4.34–15.78) <0.001
 Urinary bladder injury 3 (0.9) 17 (0.2) 5.3 (1.56–18.32) 0.003
 Lumbar vertebral fracture 14 (4.0) 179 (1.7) 2.4 (1.38–4.20) 0.001
 Sacral vertebral fracture 7 (2.0) 62 (0.6) 3.4 (1.57–7.58) 0.001
Extremity trauma, n (%)     
 Scapular fracture 13 (3.7) 160 (1.5) 2.5 (1.41–4.45) 0.001
 Humeral fracture 15 (4.3) 468 (4.5) 1.0 (0.57–1.63) 0.886
 Radial fracture 28 (8.0) 1069 (10.2) 0.8 (0.52–1.14) 0.188
 Ulnar fracture 28 (8.0) 514 (4.9) 1.7 (1.14–2.52) 0.008
 Pelvic fracture 44 (12.6) 269 (2.6) 5.5 (3.91–7.70) <0.001
 Femoral fracture 57 (16.4) 842 (8.0) 2.2 (1.67–3.00) <0.001
 Tibial fracture 37 (10.6) 768 (7.3) 1.5 (1.06–2.13) 0.021
 Fibular fracture 26 (7.5) 425 (4.1) 1.9 (1.26–2.88) 0.002