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Table 2 Pre-hospital EMS research topics

From: A national research agenda for pre-hospital emergency medical services in the Netherlands: a Delphi-study

Airway, Breathing and Pulmonology
 – Open/secure airway (e.g. intubation)
 – Mechanical ventilation (devices)
 – Auscultation
 – Oxygen supply
 – Pharmaceutical intervention in COPD
 – CO2
 – Hyperventilation
Circulation and Cardiology
 – Shock therapy
 – Resuscitation & devices, and therapeutically hypothermia treatment
 – Assessment of acute cardiac signs & symptoms
 – Diagnostics/ECG for acute cardiac signs & symptoms
 – ACS management
 – Sepsis
Disability, Exposure and Neurology
 – Pain management
 – Assessment of acute neurologic signs & symptoms
 – Intoxication (alcohol/drugs)
 – Neurological exam (Glasgow Coma Scale)
 – (Unintentional) hypothermia
Traumatology
 – Immobilisation
 – Consult Helicopter Emergency Medical Service
 – Pain management in trauma
Internal medicine
 – Acute gastro-intestinal complaints
 – Diabetes
Gynaecology/Obstetrics
 – Childbirth: CTG, care management for young born & mother
 – Maternal haemorrhage
Psychiatry
 – Emergency psychiatric care
Organisation of care
 – Care and task substitution (e.g. MANP & PA)
 – Cost-effectiveness
 – e-Health
 – Non-conveyance to hospital
 – First responders (police, fireman, citizens)
 – Rapid responders
 – Availability of ambulance EMS
Collaboration in the chain of emergency care
 – Registration
 – Hand over/ registration / exchange of patient data
 – Feedback/evaluation
 – Safety of employees
Quality of Care
 – Performance measures for quality of care
 – Patient Safety
 – Triage
 – Protocols and protocol adherence
 – Stay and play versus scoop and run
 – Patient perspective
Education
 – Professional behaviour
 – Competences (knowledge, skills and attitude)
 – Education programs (e.g.. simulation)
 – e-Learning
 – Tests and exams (e.g. peer assessment)