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Table 2 Communication and decision making using patient information

From: Trauma team activation varies across Dutch emergency departments: a national survey

  Total One team Tiered response P-value**
n = 69* n = 47 n = 22
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Type of pre-notification     0.28
  Telephone call 64 (92.8) 42 (89.4) 22 (100.0)
  Digital on mobile device 1 (1.4) 1 (2.4) 0 (0.0)
  Othera 4 (5.8) 4 (8.5) 0 (0.0)
Professional sending pre-notification from pre-hospital setting     0.94
  EMD (indirect) 22 (31.9) 15 (31.9) 7 (31.8)
  (H)EMS (direct) 27 (39.1) 19 (40.4) 8 (36.4)
  (H)EMS and EMD (direct and indirect) 14 (20.3) 9 (19.1) 5 (22.7)
  Otherb 5 (7.2) 3 (6.4) 2 (9.1)
  Unknown 1 (1.4) 1 (2.1) 0 (0.0)
Professional receiving pre-notification at ED     0.27
  ED nurse 67 (97.1) 46 (97.9) 21 (95.5)
   first ED nurse present 39 (56.5) 26 (55.3) 13 (59.1)
   triage nurse 17 (24.6) 14 (29.8) 3 (13.6)
   coordinator/senior nurse 11 (15.9) 6 (12.8) 5 (22.7)
  ED physician 1 (1.4) 0 (0.0) 1 (4.5)
  Otherc 1 (1.4) 1 (2.1) 0 (0.0)
Professional making decision for TTA     0.29
  ED nurse 32 (46.4) 19 (40.4) 13 (59.1)
   ED nurse receiving pre-notification 14 (20.3) 9 (19.1) 5 (22.7)
   triage nurse 10 (14.5) 5 (10.6) 5 (22.7)
   coordinator/senior nurse 8 (11.6) 5 (10.6) 3 (13.6)
  ED physician 21 (30.4) 17 (36.2) 4 (18.2)
   emergency physician 11 (15.9) 8 (17.0) 3 (13.6)
   (trauma) surgeon 8 (11.6) 7 (14.9) 1 (4.5)
   other physician (not specified) 2 (2.9) 2 (4.3) 0 (0.0)
  Multiple professionals 14 (20.3) 9 (19.1) 5 (22.7)
   ED nurse and EMS 1 (1.4) 1 (2.1) 0 (0.0)
   ED nurse and emergency physician 6 (8.7) 4 (8.5) 2 (9.1)
   meeting with whole ED team 7 (10.1) 4 (8.5) 3 (13.6)
  Otherd 2 (2.9) 2 (4.3) 0 (0.0)
  1. ED Emergency Department, EMD Emergency Medical Dispatcher, EMS Emergency Medical Service, HEMS Helicopter Emergency Medical Services, TTA Trauma Team Activation
  2. *Three of the EDs do not receive pre-notification; at these EDs decision for TTA is made by an ED nurse (coordinator/senior nurse) and other (n = 2; ED floor manager and protocol)
  3. **Counts for different categories were compared by the Chi-square test
  4. aBy telephone call and electronically (n = 3), only electronically (screen on ED)
  5. bMultiple possibilities (n = 2), electronically, mostly by EMS nurse and sometimes by EMD
  6. cED nurse or emergency physician or secretary
  7. dNot specified