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Table 3 Unadjusted odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios of administration of intravenous epinephrine on secondary outcome (survival to discharge) among patients with traumatic cardiac arrest

From: Prehospital intravenous epinephrine may boost survival of patients with traumatic cardiac arrest: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristics Survival to discharge, n = 20 Mortality at discharge, n = 494 p-value Unadjusted ORs and 95 % CI Adjusted ORs and 95 % CI
Gender-male, n (%) 16 (80.0 %) 332 (67.2 %) 0.33 1.95 (0.64–5.93)  
Age (median (Q1–Q3)) 50.0 (35.0–72.0) 48.0 (30.0–64.0) 0.56 1.01 (0.99–1.03)  
EMS Time: (median (Q1–Q3))
Response 5.0 (3.0–6.0) 5.0 (4.0–6.0) 0.55 0.90 (0.74–1.11)  
Scene 11.0 (8.0–14.5) 11.0 (8.0–14.0) 0.93 0.99 (0.93–1.06)  
Transport 2.0 (2.0–5.5) 3.0 (2.0–5.0) 0.32 0.93 (0.77–1.11)  
Total prehospital time 18.0 (14.5–28.0) 20.0 (16.0–25.0) 0.54 0.98 (0.93–1.04)  
Witness, n (%) 9 (45.0 %) 185 (37.5 %) 0.49 1.37 (0.56–3.36)  
Bystander CPR, n (%) 6 (30.0 %) 104 (21.1 %) 0.40 1.61 (0.60–4.28)  
Shockable rhythm, n (%) 9 (45.0 %) 15 (3.0 %) <0.01 26.1 (9.42–72.45) 23.29 (8.08–67.15)
Blunt injury, n (%) 10 (50.0 %) 378 (76.5 %) 0.01 0.31 (0.12–0.76) 0.45 (0.16–1.31)
Advance airway, n (%) 7 (35.0 %) 117 (23.7 %) 0.28 1.74 (0.68–4.45)  
Destination at trauma center, n (%) 16 (80.0 %) 333 (67.4 %) 0.33 1.93 (0.64–5.88)  
Epinephrine, n (%) 6 (30.0 %) 37 (7.5 %) <0.01 5.29 (1.92–14.58) 2.94 (0.85–10.15)
  1. TCA traumatic cardiac arrest, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation