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Table 2 Unadjusted odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios of administration of intravenous epinephrine on primary outcome (sustained ROSC for longer than 2 hours) among patients with traumatic cardiac arrest

From: Prehospital intravenous epinephrine may boost survival of patients with traumatic cardiac arrest: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristics With sustained ROSC, n = 101 Without sustained ROSC, n = 413 p-value Unadjusted ORs and 95 % CI Adjusted ORs and 95 % CI
Gender-male, n (%) 67 (66.3 %) 281 (68.0 %) 0.81 0.93 (0.58–1.47)  
Age (median (Q1–Q3)) 51.0 (35.0–69.5) 46.0 (30.0–62.0) 0.04 1.01 (1.00–1.02) 1.01 (1.00–1.02)
EMS Time: (median (Q1–Q3))
Response 4.0 (3.0–6.0) 5.0 (4.0–6.0) 0.09 0.95 (0.87–1.03)  
Scene 12.0 (8.0–15.0) 11.0 (8.0–14.0) 0.58 0.99 (0.96–1.02)  
Transport 3.0 (2.0–4.0) 3.0 (2.0–5.0) <0.01 0.88 (0.80–0.97) 0.87 (0.79–0.97)
Total prehospital time 19.0 (15.0–26.0) 20.0 (16.0–25.0) 0.21 0.98 (0.95–1.01)  
Witness, n (%) 45 (44.6 %) 149 (36.1 %) 0.14 1.42 (0.92–2.21)  
Bystander CPR, n (%) 29 (28.7 %) 81 (19.6 %) 0.06 1.65 (1.01–2.71)  
Shockable rhythm, n (%) 13 (12.9 %) 11 (2.7 %) <0.01 5.40 (2.34–12.45) 5.05 (2.09–12.21)
Blunt injury, n (%) 64 (63.4 %) 324 (78.5 %) <0.01 0.48 (0.30–0.76) 0.66 (0.38–1.13)
Advance airway, n (%) 32 (31.7 %) 92 (22.3 %) 0.05 1.62 (1.00–2.61)  
Destination at trauma center, n (%) 68 (67.3 %) 281 (68.0 %) 0.91 0.97 (0.61–1.54)  
Epinephrine, n (%) 18 (17.8 %) 25 (6.1 %) <0.01 3.37 (1.76–6.45) 2.24 (1.05–4.81)
  1. TCA traumatic cardiac arrest, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation