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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of patients with and without post-snakebite compartment syndrome

From: Predictors of the development of post-snakebite compartment syndrome

Characteristics All patient (N = 136) Non-PSCS group (N = 127) PSCS group (N = 9) p value*
Age (years) (mean ± SD) 51.5 ± 17.0 51.4 ± 17.0 52.2 ± 17.2 0.955
Gender (n, %)     
 Male 101 (74.3 %) 95 (74.8 %) 6 (66.7 %) 0.694
 Female 35 (25.7 %) 32 (25.2 %) 3 (33.3 %)  
Time from injury to ED (hours) 5.8 ± 11.2 5.8 ± 11.5 5.8 ± 6.2 0.069
Snake species (n, %)     
 Unknown species 72 (52.9 %) 67 (52.8 %) 5 (55.6 %) 0.996
 Taiwan Habu (Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus) 31 (22.8 %) 29 (22.8 %) 2 (22.2 %)  
 Bamboo viper (Trimeresurus stejnegeri) 17 (12.6 %) 16 (12.6 %) 1 (11.1 %)  
 Russell’s pit viper (Daboia russellii formosensis) 3 (2.2 %) 3 (2.4 %) 0 (0.0 %)  
 Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) 12 (8.8 %) 11 (8.7 %) 1 (11.1 %)  
 Taiwan banded krait (Bungarus multicinctus) 1 (0.7 %) 1 (0.8 %) 0 (0 %)  
Initial GCS (n, %)     
 GCS = 15 136 (100 %) 127 (100 %) 9 (100 %) 1.000
Initial blood pressure (n, %)     
 SBP ≥ 90 mmHg 136 (100 %) 127 (100 %) 9 (100 %) 1.000
Laboratory data     
 WBC (/uL)(mean ± SD) 8910 ± 3710 8600 ± 3500 12660 ± 4360 0.006
 Seg (%) (mean ± SD) 64.4 ± 14.7 62.9 ± 14.1 82.7 ± 6.8 <0.001
 INR (mean ± SD) 1.03 ± 0.92 1.03 ± 0.07 1.13 ± 0.24 0.155
 Cr (mg/dL) (mean ± SD) 0.87 ± 0.22 0.86 ± 0.22 0.88 ± 0.19 0.525
 AST (U/L) (mean ± SD) 37.9 ± 29.5 30.96 ± 12.68 103.00 ± 64.05 <0.001
 ALT (U/L) (mean ± SD) 26.1 ± 15.3 24.82 ± 14.64 40.43 ± 16.65 0.008
 Myoglobin (ng/mL) (median, IQR) 34.7 (20.8 – 64.3) 33.1 (20.0 – 59.7) 52.0 (34.3 – 1259.4) 0.123
 CRP (mg/L) (median, IQR) 1.0 (0.4 -4.9) 1.0 (0.4 -4.9) 2.8 (0.9 -6.4) 0.275
Admission (n, %)     
 Yes 62 (45.6 %) 53 (41.7 %) 9 (100 %) 0.001
 No 74 (54.4 %) 74 (58.3 %) 0 (0 %)  
Length of hospital stay (day) (mean ± SD) 4.2 ± 6.7 3.3 ± 4.2 17.2 ± 16.7 <0.001
  1. *The comparison is between non-PSCS and PSCS groups
  2. PSCS Post-snakebite Compartment syndrome, SD standard deviation. IQR Interquartile range, ED emergency department, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, SBP systolic blood pressure, WBC white blood count, Seg segment, PLT platelet, INR international normalized ratio, APTT activated partial thromboplastin time, BUN blood urea nitrogen, Cr creatinine, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, CRP C reactive protein
  3. Bold data represent the p value < 0.05