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Table 3 Change in physiological severity score (PSS) from first point of medical contact to hospital admission, a positive number indicating physiological improvement

From: Ketamine for prehospital trauma analgesia in a low-resource rural trauma system: a retrospective comparative study of ketamine and opioid analgesia in a ten-year cohort in Iraq

  No analgesia n = 275 Pentazocine n = 888 Ketamine n = 713 Group comparisons
Change in PSS sum score 1.3 (1.1–1.5) 1.5 (1.4–1.6) 1.5 (1.4–1.6) p = 0.26.
No significant differences between means.
Change in respiratory rate score 0.4 (0.3–0.4) 0.5 (0.5–0.6) 0.5 (0.4–0.5) p = 0.003.
Pentazocine vs no analgesia: p = 0.002
Ketamine vs no analgesia: p = 0.02
Pentazocine vs ketamine: p = 0.8
Change in blood pressure score 0.4 (0.3–0.5) 0.6 (0.6–0.7) 0.7 (0.7–0.8) p = <0.0001
Pentazocine vs no analgesia: p = <0.0001
Ketamine vs no analgesia: p = <0.0001
Ketamine vs pentazocine: p = 0.08
Change in consciousness score 0.6 (0.5–0.7) 0.4 (0.3–0.4) 0.3 (0.2–0.3) p = <0.0001
Pentazocine vs no analgesia: p = 0.0006
Ketamine vs no analgesia: p = <0.0001
Ketamine vs pentazocine: p = 0.2
  1. Values are expressed as the mean values with 95 % confidence intervals in brackets