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Table 3 Recommended treatment options

From: Factors that may improve outcomes of early traumatic brain injury care: prospective multicenter study in Austria

  Phase 1 Phase 2 Total p-value*
Transport n % n % n %  
Direct 317 78 282 87 599 82 <0.01
Secondary 70 17 32 10 102 14
Unknown 21 5 11 3 32 4
Total 408 100 325 100 733 100
Time intervals n % n % n %  
EMS arrival - hospital admission <60 min 167 41 197 61 364 50 <0.01
Hospital admission - CT scan <60 min 269 66 242 74 511 70 0.854
Hospital admission - OR <120 131 32 118 36 249 34 0.995
Prehospital monitoring n % n % n %  
Pulse oximetry used 298 73 284 87 582 79 0.969
Blood pressure monitoring used 291 71 267 82 558 76 0.966
Capnography in ventilated patients 123 57 131 78 254 35 0.121
Prehospital ventilation n % n % n %  
Hyperventilation (pCO2 < 35 mmHg) 81 20 47 14 128 17 0.083
Normoventialtion (pCO2 35–42 mmHg) 64 16 59 18 123 17
Hypoventilation (pCO2 > 42 mmHg) 10 2 13 4 23 3
Unknown 253 62 206 63 459 63
Total 408 100 325 100 733 100
Prehospital fluid resuscitation n % n % n %  
Ringer's lactate 109 27 65 20 174 24 0.096
Ringer's solution 102 25 110 34 212 29 0.148
Other electrolyte solution 71 17 74 23 145 20 0.283
Colloids 105 26 59 18 164 22 <0.05
Hypertonic saline 22 5 15 5 37 5 0.665
Other treatment options n % n % n %  
Trombelastometry done 99 24 129 40 228 31 0.212
Corticosteroids given 15 4 3 1 18 2 0.045
  1. Legend: CT Computed Tomography, OR Operation Room, EMS Emergency Medical Service, pCO2 Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide
  2. *The tests were applied only on known values