Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Characteristics of study group: trauma severity, CT scan findings, expected outcomes

From: Factors that may improve outcomes of early traumatic brain injury care: prospective multicenter study in Austria

  Phase 1 Phase 2 Total p-value*
  median IQR median IQR median IQR  
GCS score 6 (3–6) 7 (3–11) 6 (3–11) <0.05
ISS 25 (16–25) 29 (19–43) 26 (17–41) <0.01
  n % n % n %  
Field hypotensiona 32 10 30 11 62 10 0.887
Field hypoxia 63 21 56 21 119 21 0.988
Pupils n % n % n % <0.001
Both reactive 334 82 206 63 540 74
One reactive 10 2 31 10 41 6
None reactive 53 13 49 15 102 14
Not assessable/Unknown 11 3 39 12 50 7
Total 408 100 325 100 733 100
CT scan: basal cisterns n % n % n % <0.001
Open 315 77 204 63 519 71
Compressed 57 14 56 17 113 15
closed 27 7 41 13 68 9
Unknown 9 2 24 7 33 5
Total 408 100 325 100 733 100
CT scan: midline shift n % n % n % <0.001
No shift 286 70 203 62 489 67
<5 mm 45 11 25 8 70 10
>5 mm 40 10 75 23 115 16
Unknown 37 9 22 7 59 8
Total 408 100 325 100 733 100
CT scan: brain lesions n % n % n %  
Subarachnoid hemorrhage 226 55 190 58 416 57 0.825
Subdural hematoma 213 52 166 51 379 52 0.869
Contusions 140 34 135 42 275 38 0.228
Intracerebral hematoma 78 19 68 21 146 20 0.701
Epidural hematoma 60 15 62 19 122 17 0.231
Intraventricular hemorrhage 35 9 33 10 68 9 0.6
Hemorrhage in basal cisterns 28 7 24 7 52 7 0.928
Predominant injury n % n % n %  
Normal CT 36 9 21 6 57 8 0.572
Contusions 38 9 39 12 77 11
Diffuse edema 47 12 47 14 94 13
Subarachnoid hemorrhage 68 17 43 13 111 15
Epidural hematoma 37 9 29 9 66 9
Subdural hematoma 129 32 105 32 234 32
Intracerebral hematoma 39 10 26 8 65 9
Intraventricular hemorrhage 8 2 7 2 15 2
Unknown 6 1 8 2 14 2
Total 408 100 325 100 733 100
Expected outcomes mean (%) SD mean (%) SD mean (%) SD  
Probability of deathb 33 20 34 21 33 20 0.8517
Probability of unfavorable outcomea 55 22 55 24 55 23 0.8517
  1. Legend: GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, ISS Injury Severity Score [33], IQR Interquartile range, CT Computed Tomography
  2. *The tests were applied only on known values
  3. aPrehospital (field) hypoxia was defined as oxygen saturation <90 % (measured by a pulse oximeter) until hospital admission. Prehospital (field) hypotension was defined as systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg until hospital admission
  4. bProbability of death/unfavorable outcome was calculated using IMPACT Core model [18] on the whole study group with known data (age, GCS motor score, pupils)