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Table 2 Comparison of Study Patients with Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Documented in the German Resuscitation Registry Relative to Intubation Problems (January 2007–October 2011)

From: Difficult intubation and outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a registry-based analysis

  Difficult endotracheal intubation Impossible endotracheal intubation Normal endotracheal intubation (control group) P-values Test method
n 510 147 7855   
Gender male 378 (74.1 %) 117 (79.6 %) 5194 (66.1 %) p < 0.001 Chi2
Age in years (MD +/− SD) 64.5 +/−14.9 64.1 +/−14.9 68.7 +/−15.2 p < 0.001 Kruskal-Wallis
Age > 80 years 85 (16.7 %) 18 (12.2 %) 1973 (25.1 %) p < 0.001 Chi2
Location      
- At home 325 (63.7 %) 97 (66.0 %) 5271 (67.1 %) 0.028 Chi2
- Nursing home 30 (5.9 %) 7 (4.8 %) 611 (7.8 %)
- Doctor’s office 5 (1.0 %) 4 (2.7 %) 147 (1.9 %)
- Public place 111 (21.8 %) 32 (21.8 %) 1357 (17.3 %)
- Medical institution 11 (2.2 %) 2 (1.4 %) 191 (2.4 %)
- Others 28 (5.5 %) 5 (3.4 %) 278 (3.5 %)
Presenting rhythm      
- Ventricular Fibrillation 154 (30.2 %) 40 (27.2 %) 2235 (28.5 %) 0.274 Chi2
- EMD 79 (15.5 %) 17 (11.6 %) 1345 (17.1 %)
- Asystole 277 (54.3 %) 90 (61.2 %) 4275 (54.4 %)
Witnessed      
- None 153 (30.0 %) 60 (40.8 %) 3046 (38.8 %) p < 0.001 Chi2
- Lay people 309 (60.6 %) 70 (47.6 %) 3952 (50.3 %)
- Professionals 48 (9.4 %) 17 (11.6 %) 857 (10.9 %)
Bystander CPR 125 (24.5 %) 29 (19.7 %) 1173 (14.9 %) p < 0.001 Chi2
Presumed etiology      
- Cardial 375 (73.5 %) 109 (74.1 %) 6360 (81.0 %) p < 0.001 Chi2
- Trauma 21 (4.1 %) 7 (4.8 %) 181 (2.3 %)
- Hypoxia 66 (12.9 %) 20 (13.6 %) 698 (8.9 %)
- Intoxikation 6 (1.2 %) 5 (3.4 %) 114 (1.5 %)
- Other not cardial 42 (8.2 %) 6 (4.1 %) 502 (6.4 %)
use of SGD 152 (29.8 %) 97 (66.0 %) 530 (6.7 %) p < 0.001 Chi2
Arrest to EMS arrival time (MD +/−SD) 9.1 +/− 5.8 8.3 +/−5.6 8.7 +/−6.0 0.092 Kruskal-Wallis
observed ROSC 222 (43.5 %) 46 (31.3 %) 3297 (42.0 %) 0.025 Chi2
(95 % CI) (39.2–47.8 %) (23.8–38.8 %) (40.9–43.1 %)   
expected ROSC (RACA) 42.0 % 40.5 % 39.8 %   
  1. CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; EMD, electromechanical dissociation; EMS, emergency medical system; RACA, ROSC after cardiac arrest score; ROSC, return of spontaneous circulation; SGD, supraglottic airway device