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Table 5 Handover from ambulance to ED (O1)

From: A tailored e-learning program to improve handover in the chain of emergency care: a pre-test post-test study

Variable Pre-test (n = 145) Post-test (n = 167) p-value X2-test
n (%) n (%)
Characteristics    
Patient gender    .797
Male 75 (51.7) 83 (49.7)  
Female 70 (48.3) 73 (43.7)  
Missing*   10 (6.0)  
Medical specialty    .106
Trauma 32 (22.1) 25 (15.0)  
Non-trauma 113 (77.9) 142 (85.0)  
Urgency    
A1 (within 15 minutes) 49 (33.8) 44 (26.3) .152
A2 (within 30 minutes) 81 (55.9) 93 (55.7) .975
B (low urgency/planned) 15 (10.3) 30 (18.0) .056
Primary outcomes    
Handover model used    
DeMIST 113 (77.9) 122 (73.1) .319
ABCD 0 (0.0) 2 (1.2) -
AMPLE 0 (0.0) 1 (0.6) -
No method/not recognizable 32 (22.1) 42 (25.1) .523
Correct sequence of the DeMIST    
Yes 79 (69.9) 86 (70.5) .159
No 34 (30.1) 24 (19.7)  
No sequence recognizable within DeMIST - 12 (9.8)  
Secondary outcomes    
Receiving team composition at start handover    
Physician and nurse 62 (42.8) 68 (40.7) .715
Physician later than start 64 (44.1) 90 (53.9) .035**
Nurse later than start 18 (12.4) 9 (5.4) .055
Physician and nurse too late 1 (0.7) - -
Receivers recognizability    
Optic 33 (22.8) 39 (23.4) .901
Verbal 29 (20.0) 49 (29.3) .057
Not recognizable 83 (57,2) 79 (47.3) .080
Handover given by    
Ambulance nurse 143 (98.6) 157 (94.0) .035**
Ambulance nurse + ambulance driver 2 (1.4) 10 (6.0)  
Receiver handover    
ED physician 19 (13.1) 26 (15.6) .553
ED nurse 64 (44.1) 89 (53.3) .120
ED team(minimum: ED nurse + ED physician) 61 (42.1) 52 (31.1) .040**
Missing 1 (0.7) - -
Handover moment    
Before patient transfer 28 (19.3) 40 (24.0) .322
During patient transfer 3 (2.1) 9 (5.4) .128
After patient transfer 106 (73.1) 110 (65.9) .167
Different (patient is to toilet or is in different room) 8 (5.5) 8 (4.8) .772
Number of handovers with repetitions 17 (11.8) 21 (12.6) .819
Number of handovers with questions 71 (49.0) 115 (68.9) .000**
Number of handovers with interruptions 22 (15.2) 88 (52.7) .000**
Number of handover were verification was asked 22 (15.2) 19 (11.4) .322
Handover documented 39 (26.9) 49 (29.3) .632
Whiteboard 0 (0.0) 2 (4.1) -
DeMIST form 1 (2.6) 3 (6.1) -
Patient file 0 (0.0) 1 (2.0) -
Different*** 38 (97.4) 43 (87.8) .095
  1. *The gender was not registered for 10 patients, this could not be retrieved.
  2. **Significant difference.
  3. ***Glove, napkin, sheet, paper.