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Table 4 Characteristics of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients who received biphasic defibrillation treatment before hospital arrival according to the number of defibrillations

From: The number of prehospital defibrillation shocks and 1-month survival in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

Variable ≤2 times ( n = 13,565) ≥3 times ( n = 7,286) P -value
(OHCA patients)    
Age (yr) (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) 66.19 ± 15.32 64.09 ± 15.07 <.0001
Sex (male), no. (%) 10430 (76.89) 5938 (81.50) <.0001
Origin of OHCA (cardiac origin), no. (%) 11863 (87.45) 6735 (92.44) <.0001
Relationship between bystander and patient (family member), no. (%) 6997 (51.58) 4197 (57.60) <.0001
(CPR initiated by bystander)    
Chest compressions (yes), no. (%) 6167 (45.46) 3514 (48.23) <.0001
Rescue breathing (yes), no. (%) 1446 (10.66) 782 (10.73) .8705
(Life support by EMS personnel)    
Emergency life-saving technician in ambulance (yes), no. (%) 13169 (97.08) 7115 (97.65) .0154
Advanced life support by MD (yes), no. (%) 1628 (12.00) 1020 (14.00) <.0001
Time from call to arrival at scene (min) (mean ± SD) 7.05 ± 3.24 7.17 ± 3.27 .0159
Time from call to arrival at hospital (min) (mean ± SD) 32.96 ± 15.88 35.02 ± 14.67 <.0001
Use of ALS devices (laryngeal mask/an adjunct airway/ tracheal tubes), no. (%) 4946 (36.46) 3494 (47.95) <.0001
Epinephrine use (yes), no. (%) 2207 (16.27) 2437 (33.45) <.0001
Time from the first defibrillation to the first ROSC before hospital arrival (min) (mean ± SD) 6.27 ± 9.63 11.91 ± 8.09 <.0001
Number of defibrillations by EMS personnel (mean ± SD) 1.38 (0.49) 4.18 (1.55) <.0001
Proportions of the number of defibrillations (%)    <.0001
1 8403 (61.95) 0 (0.00)  
≥2 5162 (38.05) 7286 (100.00)  
Frequency of patients who took ≤1 min. from the first defibrillation to the first ROSC before hospital arrival (%) 2393 (17.64) 350 (4.81) <.0001
(Endpoint)    
1-month survival after cardiac arrest (yes), no. (%) 4677 (34.48) 1803 (24.75) <.0001
ROSC (yes), no. (%) 5188 (38.25) 1688 (23.17) <.0001