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Table 2 Intervention rates prehospital and in the ED by treating team model

From: Prehospital response model and time to CT scan in blunt trauma patients; an exploratory analysis of data from the head injury retrieval trial

  Road paramedics (n = 505) HIRT HEMS (n = 336) GSA HEMS (n = 48) p-value
Peripheral cannulation     
Prehospital     
- 0 122 (24%) 16 (5%) 1 (2%) <0.001,*§
- 1 375 (74%) 222 (66%) 34 (71%)  
- 2 or more 8 (2%) 98 (29%) 13 (27%)  
Emergency department     
- 0 99 (20%) 88 (27%) 10 (21%) 0.11
- 1 255 (51%) 161 (49%) 28 (60%)  
- 2 or more 144 (29%) 81 (25%) 9 (19%)  
Intubation     
Prehospital 27 (5%) 156 (46%) 20 (42%) <0.001,*§
Emergency department 164 (33%) 37 (11%) 3 (6%) <0.001,*§
Thoracic decompression     
Prehospital 2 (0.4%) 4 (1.2%) 6 (12.5%) <0.001,§ ¥
Emergency department 54 (11%) 39 (12%) 8 (17%) 0.45
Administration of intravenous fluids (mls)     
Prehospital 0 (0–200) 500 (100–1000) 725 (200–1375) <0.001,*§ ¥
Emergency department 1000 (500–2000) 1000 (500–1800) 1000 (500–1500) 0.32
Administration of prehospital packed red blood cells     
Any amount 0 20 (6%) 4 (8%) <0.001,*§
Application of femur traction splint     
Prehospital 1 (0.2%) 4 (1.2%) 1 (2%) 0.06
Emergency department 15 (3%) 14 (4%) 3 (6%) 0.29
Application of prehospital pelvic compression device 1 (0.2%) 11 (3%) 6 (13%) <0.001,*§ ¥
  1. Statistics reported as N (%), mean (SD) or median (IQR) as appropriate.
  2. *indicates difference between Road Paramedics and HIRT HEMS at <0.05 level.
  3. §indicates difference between Road paramedics and GSA HEMS at <0.05 level.
  4. ¥indicates difference between HIRT HEMS and GSA HEMS at <0.05 level.