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Table 4 Factors predicting a higher posttraumatic stress score univariate/unadjusted

From: Exposure and posttraumatic stress symptoms among first responders working in proximity to the terror sites in Norway on July 22, 2011 – a cross-sectional study

  Police officers   Fire-fighters   Ambulance personnel  
  β p value β p value β p value
Age −1.6 < .05*   ns – 2.5 < .05*
Gender, male = 1, female = 2   ns   ns 4.3 < .05*
Previous training, no/yes   ns   ns   ns
Work experience in similar tasks, no/yes   ns   ns   ns
Disaster drill, no/yes −1.9 < .05*   .065   ns
Concerned about next of kin   ns   ns   ns
Witnessing injured/dead no/yes 1.6 < .05*   ns 3.7 <. 001**
Witnessing despaired people no/yes 1.8 < .05*   ns   .074
Reject victims, no/yes   ns   ns   ns
Lack of control (1-5) 1.1 < .05*   ns 2.1 <. 001**
Overwhelmed (1-5) 1.6 < .001** 2.0 < .05* 1.8 < .05*
Arousal (1-5)     ns 1.6 < .05*
Dissociation (1-5) 2.6 <.001** 4.7 < .001** 4.6 <. 001**
  1. Note. Univariable linear Regression Analysis, stepwise. *p < .05, **p < .001.