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Table 2 Psychological responses

From: Exposure and posttraumatic stress symptoms among first responders working in proximity to the terror sites in Norway on July 22, 2011 – a cross-sectional study

Mean (95% confidence interval) Police officers n = 76 Fire-fighters n = 73 Ambulance personnel n = 89 p value
1) Feeling of numbness 1.5 (1.3-1.6) 1.6 (1.4-1.8) 1.9 (1.7-2.1) < .05*
2) Not being aware of the surroundings 1.3 (1.2-1.4) 1.4 (1.2-1.6) 1.6 (1.4-1.8) < .05*
3) Sense of unreality 2.2 (1.9-2.4) 2.9 (2.6-3.2) 2.7 (2.5-3.0) < .01*
4) Feeling of not being “yourself” 1.3 (1.1-1.5) 1.3 (1.2-1.5) 1.5 (1.3-1.7) ns
5) Did not remember what happened or parts of the event 1.6 (1.3-1.9) 1.3 (1.2-1.5) 1.5 (1.3-1.7) ns
6) Sharpened attention 3.8 (3.5-4.0) 3.4 (3.1-3.6) 3.7 (3.4-3.9) < .05*
7) Reduced need for sleep/rest 3.3 (3.0-3.6) 2.1 (1.8-2.4) 2.7 (2.4-3.0) < .001**
8) Positive activation (more energy/intense sense of coping) 3.2 (2.9-3.4) 2.6 (2.4-2.9) 2.9 (2.7-3.2) < .05*
9) Overwhelmed/helpless 2.6 (2.3-2.8) 2.6 (2.4-2.8) 2.9 (2.7-3.2) ns
10) Lack of control 2.5 (2.2-2.8) 2.2 (2.0-2.5) 2.7 (2.4-2.9) < .05*
  1. Note. Dissociative symptoms (1-5), arousal (6-8), and lack of coping (9-10).
  2. (Scale: 1 = not at all and 5 = to a very high degree).
  3. *p < .05, **p < .001.